Biogenic amines can act as possible biomarkers for control of food products [35-37]. Putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and histamine are the most known compounds in this class, their concentration being a good indicator of fish, meat, and cheese freshness . Biogenic amines are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of corresponding amino acids and their toxicological significance in food products is still unclear. However, they can cause severe effects, such as headache and facial flushing, even when consuming very small amounts of infested fermented beverages and/or food [43, 44]. Many enzymatic methods have been developed for measuring biogenic amines in blood, biological tissues and food products [45-51], most of them being based on amine oxidase (AO) which catalyses the following reaction (1):
We recently reported on the development, characteristics, and application of amperometric graphite electrodes based on a newly isolated and characterised AO, both in a mono-  and bi-enzymatic (co-immobilised AO and HRP) design [3 1], either in the presence or in the absence of an electrochemical mediator (Os-based redox polymer). The grass-pea AO used during this work is a newly described copper-containing enzyme, which besides the metal ions also contains an organic cofactor with a quinoid structure (topa quinone) in its catalytic site [52, 53], showing the possibility of transferring electrons directly to the graphite electrode , The working principle of the mediated mono- and bi-enzyme biosensor architectures is presented in schemes 5 and 6, respectively.
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