Home Emergency Preparedness Guide
Emergency preparedness at Xerox which became especially acute due to the events of September 11, 2001 integrates several phases of response from a business perspective emergency response, crisis management, and business continuity (Figure 4.1). The first phase, which is usually of a short duration, is the emergency itself. This may include a fire or an explosion at a plant or a facility. The initial management of the response to the emergency at a Xerox factory would involve the environmental health and safety committee, as well as the security department of the company. Their actions would be to protect the employees, property, surrounding communities, and the environment. The second phase, crisis management, is when the local event continues or increases in size as a result of uncertainty or crisis fall-out. Sometimes the emergency may last for weeks and cause concern in the public health sector. Thus, this phase needs The driving force was business continuity planning, and it was...
Without a precise metric for preparedness, readiness can never be guaranteed. As a result, workshop participants stressed the need for enhanced collaboration and coordination among all stakeholders involved in disaster preparedness and response, in order to translate current policies into more concrete and effective Recognizing the need for a unified approach to preparedness, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has recently developed the National Response Plan to improve coordination between government agencies and local first responders, noted Lew Stringer, of the Department of Homeland Security. Although not fully implemented as of the time of the workshop, this all-hazards plan addresses prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery for all levels of domestic incident management. Under the National Response Plan, local jurisdictions will retain primary responsibility for response efforts, using locally available resources however, in the event of a large-scale catastrophe,...
Since September 11, 2001, the federal government has undertaken significant initiatives to strengthen America's state and local emergency preparedness and response systems. The improvements in the nation's risk communication strategies, and its enhanced capabilities to acquire, store, and distribute pharmaceuticals and medical supplies to the public cannot be disputed however, workshop participants stressed the importance of addressing the gaps and shortfalls in current emergency management policies. A number of challenges continue to exist as pointed out by many of the speakers and the participants, including
The vaccine is administered intramuscularly as a primary course of two 0.5 ml injections given 4-12 weeks apart, which will provide protection for 1 year. A third dose is given 9-12 months after the second dose and confers immunity for 3 years. Booster doses are subsequently recommended at 3-yearly intervals for those at continued risk. Serious side-effects are uncommon. A specific immunoglobulin preparation is available for both preexposure and post-exposure use where appropriate. The vaccine is available in the United Kingdom on a named-patient basis only, and additional methods of personal protection should be afforded by the use of insect repellents and appropriate clothing.
The concept of identity crises originated with Erikson, based on the clinical experiences which he used to develop a theory of ego identity development. Explication of this theory appeared in his writings during the 1950's and 1960's. Erikson's theory of the human life cycle places identity resolution as the major crisis faced by the adolescent. The success of this resolution is determined by the satisfactory resolution of crises in the stages preceding adolescence.
As mentioned earlier, Hogarty and colleagues (1986, 1991) developed an approach that was very family centered and sought to empower families by promoting useful skills, knowledge and attitudes. The family treatment focused on (1) building an alliance with the family, (2) providing concrete information and management suggestions, (3) building a support network at a 1-day survival skills workshop, and (4) providing workshop skills in individual family therapy with the patient included.
The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted October 11, 1976, gives EPA the authority to regulate the manufacture, importation, distribution, and use of the large number of industrial chemicals in the United States. EPA evaluates industrial chemicals for their potential risk to human health or the environment. Users of potentially harmful chemicals may be required to perform tests to better define their risk. If EPA determines that a chemical poses an unreasonable risk, it is authorized to ban the manufacture, processing, use, disposal, or import of that chemical. TSCA also requires EPA to track the development of new industrial chemicals or new substantial uses of industrial chemicals. If such developments pose an unreasonable risk, EPA is required to restrict the use of such chemicals. TSCA supplements other federal statutes, including the Clean Air Act and the Toxic Release Inventory under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA).
Training in crisis management may also be appropriate (Goode, 1995). Many expatriates are at increased risk of experiencing traumatic incidents, perhaps related to terrorist bombing, war situations, evacuations, hostage taking, rape, robbery, riots, traffic accidents, land mines, natural disasters, or illness epidemics. A crisis management package should include a security briefing covering measures to prevent crises wherever possible, by being alert to potential danger and taking precautions to enhance safety. The package should also provide information about established policies. Training can also be given in the importance of not abandoning hope during a crisis, but rather trying to engage in active problem solving, as this is associated with a reduction in negative psychological after-effects (Ehlers et al., 1998).
The Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA, also known as SARA 1986, Title III) is also administered by the EPA. The EPCRA does not regulate emissions but rather requires reporting of emissions of compounds that are on yet another list of about 300 compounds, claimed to be toxic. The number of lists maintained by EPA is large. One of the EPA's important documents is the List of Lists. Under EPCRA, companies are required to keep records and issue annual reports of emissions of compounds on the specified list (SARA 313). Data is compiled and reported annually through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI).
The International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC) produces a World Disaster Report, detailing both human-made and natural disasters across the world. Generally speaking, their data have shown that disaster is a common traumatic stressor across cultures but there are geographic variations as well. The following is the distribution of disasters across global regions
Other mass extinction events of earlier times are largely unknown to us, because they occurred when organisms rarely made skeletal hard parts and thus rarely became fossils. Perhaps the long period of Earth history prior to the advent of skeletons was punctuated by enormous global catastrophes that decimated the biota of our planet mass extinctions without record. Yet very little attention has been paid to earlier extinction events. For instance, astrobiologist James Kasting believes that the greatest mass extinction of all time may have been brought about by the Snowball Earth events of around 750 million years.
Carbon isotope anomalies at era boundaries Global catastrophes and their ultimate cause. Geol. Soc. Am. Special Paper 247, pp. 61-70. Raup, D. 1990. Impact as a general cause of extinction A feasibility test. In Global catastrophes in earth history, ed. V. Sharpton and P. Ward, pp. 27-32. Geol. Soc. Am. Special Paper 247. Schultz, P., and Gault, D. E. 1990. Prolonged global catastrophes from oblique impacts, in Sharpton, V. L. and Ward, P. D., eds., Global catastrophes in Earth history, An interdisciplinary conference on impacts, volcanism and mass mortality Geological Society of America Special Paper 247, p. 239-261.
Nevertheless, attempts have been made to assign a range in rates of psychopathology (e.g., PTSD depression somatization) to post-disaster survivors. Weisaeth 49 estimated that the 1-year post-disaster prevalence of psychological morbidity was about 20 , but it might be as high as 50 . Indeed, in some disaster studies, such as the Chowchilla bus kidnapping 50 and the Nazi Holocaust follow-ups, the rates have been 100 . We present these average estimates with caution, however, because, as noted earlier, many of the worst disasters occurred in developing countries 49, 51, 52 and in the former Soviet Union after these reviews appeared. The effects of these devastating disasters appear to be much worse and hence might increase the average figures substantially. For example, the rates of psychiatric morbidity reported in recent studies of natural disasters in Sri Lanka, Colombia, and India were 75 , 55 , and 59 , respectively 53 . The most frequently reported symptoms in adults in the...
Background and history information relevant to a trauma history can be ascertained in any number of ways, ranging from structured clinical interviews, questionnaires, nonstructured clinical interviews, and standardized self-report measures. Norris and Hamblen (2004) reviewed seven quality self-report measures designed to ascertain the presence of qualified traumatic events in a patient's history. Two standout instruments are both questionnaires the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ), developed by Edward Kubany et al. (2000) and the Stressful Life Events Questionnaire (SLESQ), developed by Goodman, Corcoran, Turner, Yuan, and Green (1998). The TLEQ assesses the occurrence of 23 traumatic events (e.g., natural disasters, motor vehicle accidents, or combat), is useful for both research and clinical practice, is clinician-administered, and has good psychometric properties. It is a comprehensive questionnaire covering a wide range of traumatic events. The SLESQ is a self-report...
The vaccine is administered intramuscularly, with three 0.5 ml doses at day 0, 1 month and 12 months with a level of seroprotection of 76 after three doses, which falls to 49 after two doses, clearly indicating that the use of the vaccine should be supplemented by the other methods of personal protection previously mentioned.
Epidemic to occur include the Indian Subcontinent, South America and Africa, but the risk to travellers is generally very low. If an epidemic were to occur, clearly travellers would be advised to avoid travel to such areas. Aid or health care workers deployed to an epidemic area may be vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine, which is not widely available. Three doses are administered intramuscularly at day 0, 1-3 months and 6-9 months and must be supplemented by methods of personal protection including the use of insect repellent, i.e. DEET, and appropriate clothing, as well as prophylactic antibiotics, e.g. tetracyc-line if there is a high risk of exposure. If vaccine is unavailable, it may be prudent to administer prophylactic antibiotics and advice regarding methods of personal protection if travel is absolutely unavoidable.
The discussions of the workshop were quite sobering on the health issues and other challenges that the United States and other countries face during a time of disaster. As destructive as natural disasters such as tornados are, they can be addressed because their intrinsic hazards do not change from disaster to disaster. Terrorist events, however, are difficult to prepare for and defend against because terrorists can change their method of operations. Therefore, an integration of disciplines, especially for public health and emergency responders, needs to be in place in order to meet the challenges and to be effective during a time of crisis, noted Bernard Goldstein, Graduate School of Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh.
As noted above, the choice of antimalarial medication does not necessarily conform to the standard guidelines. Furthermore, half of the study participants adjusted their regimen, independent of medical counsel, after their arrival. In sub-Saharan Africa only 75 of expatriates use regular chemoprophylaxis, in Asia about 28 and in the Pacific about 35 . Although personal protection measures have proven to be effective,
Extreme stressors are stimuli that happen relatively rarely and are extremely powerful and intense, such as war or a catastrophic illness. Both human-made disasters and natural disasters can test our ability to provide even the most basic of needs, such as shelter, food, and physical safety. Human-made disasters can refer to incidents such as wild fires set by an arsonist or an airplane crash caused by pilot error. Natural disasters are commonly associated with weather and geologic phenomenon, such as floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
Jean-Luc Poncelet, Chief, Emergency Preparedness, Pan American Health Organization William Raub, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Health Emergency Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services Moderator Ellis M. Stanley, Sr., Manager, City of Los Angeles, Emergency Preparedness Department 4 05 p.m. Practical Look at Emergency Preparedness and Crisis Management Protecting Workers and Continuing Essential Services Jack Azar, Senior Vice-President, Health and Safety, Xerox Corporation
Starting from the work of Janet and Freud and early descriptions of irritable heart syndrome and shell shock among soldiers of the American Civil War and World War I 13,14 , research on high-impact events, such as disasters and life-threatening occurrences, and more ordinary life events has been under way for at least a century. Since World War II, a number of studies have assessed the emotional consequences of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes, and more recently technological and human-made catastrophes, such as the nuclear power plant accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) in the USA and Chernobyl in the Ukraine 15-17 , the Nazi Holocaust 18, 19 , and the Cambodian massacre 20 .
This is common knowledge that disaster is everywhere. Its in the streets, its inside your campuses, and it can even be found inside your home. The question is not whether we are safe because no one is really THAT secure anymore but whether we can do something to lessen the odds of ever becoming a victim.