Illustrations

A-C Preparation of a submarginal, right-angle flap (Ochsenbein-Luebke).

D-F Preparation of a triangular flap, with an in-trasulcular and one vertical incision; with a second vertical incision, the flap can be expanded into a rectangular flap.

G A length of 3 mm was excised from the root tip; this ensures that 90% of all apical ramifications and lateral canals are removed.

H For hemostasis, cotton pellets are tam-ponated into the osseous defect; only the first pellet is saturated with a hemostatic agent.

I After three minutes, the final pellet is left in situ, and the root canal is prepared and filled from the retrograde approach. Finally the pellet is removed.

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