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One of the first NiTi systems was the ProFile instruments, which have proved themselves in daily practice for many years. The instrument set consists of orifice shapers (19 mm long files with 5-8% conicity), the conical ProFile 06 with a 6% conicity in sizes 15-40, as well as the ProFile 04 with a conicity of 4% in sizes 15-90. Orifice shapers are used for instrumentation of the coronal third of the root canal. The ProFile 06 instrument with a length 21 or 25 mm is used for instrumentation of the middle third. Instrumentation of the apical segment is accomplished with the ProFile 04 files (lengths 21, 25, and 31 mm).

The instruments have a U-shaped cross-sectional profile and "radial lands." These maintain the instruments centered within the canal, and permit easy smoothing of the canal walls. They prevent any binding or catching/ sticking in dentin. The smooth, noncutting tip serves to guide the file within the canal without scratching or gouging.

In a comparative study between and among ProFile, Flexofile, and the KaVo-Endo system, 120 extracted teeth were instrumented; 60 had straight roots and 60 exhibited at least one dilacerated root. It was demonstrated that the ProFile system instruments did not cause any alteration in the form or the course of the canals. However, the cleansing efficiency of the ProFile system was less than with manual instrumentation.

After rinsing with EDTA, files from the ProFile series provided the cleanest canal walls; after rinsing with sodium hypochlorite, the ProFile system gave poorer results.

When using the crown-down instrumentation technique, one uses two instruments in two different sizes (colors):

• for wide root canals, one begins with the blue Orifice Shapers to expand coronally

• subsequently, a red Orifice Shaper extends deeper into the coronal segment of the canal

• then a blue ProFile 06 is used, and thereafter a red ProFile 06, which should penetrate into the apical third of the root canal

• at this point, the working length is determined radiographically

• the yellow ProFile 04 widens and instruments the root canal to its full length, followed by the red and the blue ProFile 04.

For average size canals, one begins with a red Orifice Shaper, penetrates more deeply with a yellow instrument, followed by a red and a yellow ProFile 06. The final apical instrumentation, following working length determination, is performed first with a yellow ProFile 04 to full canal length, followed by red and blue.

The ProFile instruments must always be coated with a lubricant, and between each change of instruments the canal must be copiously rinsed with 5% NaOCl solution.

The ProFile instruments are used with a slight in-and-out movement, with a hub motion of not more than 2 mm and with only slight application of force.

ProFile instruments can only be used in combination with a motor that has torsion limiter (e.g., ATR Technica), with low rpm (250-350). This will prevent over-twisting the instrument and resultant fracture.

No ProFile instrument should be used more than 10 times.

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