Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more...

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Highly Recommended

The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this ebook are precise.

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Basic Mechanisms The 1950s

This situation was bound to change between 1945 and 1950 through still another approach to assess metabolic events. Right after World War II, low-energy radioactive tracers, especially 35S, 32P, 14C, and 3H, became available for research to a wider scientific public as a byproduct of expanding reactor technology. The ensuing new attack on the mechanism of protein synthesis by way of radioactive amino acids was embedded in a particular, historical conjuncture of interests that benefitted greatly from the vast resources made available for cancer research after the War 59 , and from the efforts of the American Atomic Energy Commission to demonstrate the potentials of a peaceful use of radioactivity 60, 61 . In fact, cancer research programs provided the background for much of the protein synthesis research during those years. Cancer was related to abnormal growth, and growth was considered to be intimately linked with the metabolism of proteins. This constellation also explains why much...

Emission of Greenhouse Gases Particularly CO2

In common with all types of industry, plastics manufacturing and processing operations primarily use fossil fuel energy. The concomitant release of CO2 and other greenhouse gases contributes in some measure to the global climate change process. The overall industrial CO2 emissions are significant, amounting to some 23,880 million Mt worldwide in 1996 (the North American share was 5710 million Mt) A small fraction of this CO2 emission can be undoubtedly attributed to the plastics industry. The plastics industry (as should every industry) continually makes every effort to minimize such emissions by becoming increasingly energy efficient and by developing innovative low-emitting technologies.

Potential Pollution of Air Water and Soil from Making and Using Plastic Materials

This particular concern can be local, regional, or even global depending on the nature and magnitude of the particular pollutant. For convenience, it is treated here as a global concern. Table 1.6 summarizes data on the energy consumption and emissions load associated with the manufacture of common plastics 37 . Table 1.6 Estimated Energy Costs and Emissions Associated with the Production of Plastics Materials 37 Table 1.6 Estimated Energy Costs and Emissions Associated with the Production of Plastics Materials 37

Functional Domains of Enzymes

Tions of functional domains directly involved in reactions with substrates and so forth. For free-energy conservation, functional domains on the same or different proteins are often coupled. Simpler multienzyme systems are of this type. At a high level of function, and perhaps a higher level of evolution, enzymes with highlevel functions as regulators, in synthesis, in glycolysis, and so forth, the functional domains can become integrated into large, complex, cooperative structures. In these the single functional domain is probably not a useful construct distinction.

Being Environmentally Proactive

The plastics industry should strive to become increasingly energy efficient in all its activities. To the extent possible, renewable energy sources and high-efficiency cleaner burning energy sources must be preferred in the manufacture and processing of plastics. The possibility of converting process waste into useful heat energy to offset some of the energy costs of processing operations should be explored47.

Active Errors and Theoretically Perfect Systems

The performance of most medications use systems is probably so far short of perfection that the issue of HRT vs. NAT seems academic, even for a theoretical discussion. In some ways, operation of a health care system, with millions of unprogrammable decisions made in tight time constraints, is quite different from the operation of, say, a nuclear power plant, a dam, or an airplane. The immediate practical issue is which end we should start with active errors or latent errors

Expansion Contraction Processes

The large free-volume fluctuations have a rough analogy to a harmonic spring. The energy is fixed and, of course, also the Helmholtz work, but cycles between potential and kinetic energy. Expansion-contraction cycles of the conformation interconvert entropy and enthalpy so as to maintain near-constant free energy. If the process is isoergonic, it is quite like a spring, but the total energy is not constant, so the fluctuation behavior depends on the environment and its temperature. If it is not isoergonic, motions along the expansion-contraction coordinate must be coupled to a source and sink for free energy. Such coupling is usually disadvantageous because it decreases the probability of the major fluctuation, but in multienzyme systems it may facilitate free-energy management. Catalytic rates are found to be high at low hydration where protein aggregates serve as the thermal reservoir. The thermostatting problem appears to present no difficulties.

Contributions To Energy

The minimum feedstock energy is the value equivalent to the mass of hydrocarbon material that is needed to produce the finished polymer. Any unwanted hydrocarbon by-products can be used as a fuel that is, excess feedstock can be converted to a fuel. As a consequence, most polymer production units show a feedstock consumption that is very close to this expected minimum. Thus any attempts to make polymer production more energy efficient must concentrate on reducing the direct fuel consumption rather than the feedstock consumption. When feedstock is expressed as energy, great care is needed when interpreting the results. For example, if a plant takes in 1 kg of hydrocarbon feedstock as crude oil, then the energy equivalent is 45 MJ (the gross calorific value of crude oil). However, if an equivalent plant were to take in 1 kg of hydrocarbon feedstock as natural gas, the feedstock energy would be 54 MJ (the gross calorific value of natural gas). Thus, although both plants consume equal...

Emissionrate Quantification

For many problems, such as preoperational assessments of proposed facilities, assessments of hypothetical accidents, or retrospective risk assessments of historical releases, measurements are either not possible or not practical therefore, it is necessary to develop a conceptual, mathematical, and computational model of contaminant emission. For the coal-fired power plant in Example 3.1, the conceptual model for the release of gaseous effluent would consider the composition of the coal, the rate at which coal is combusted, the rate at which gaseous and particu-late contaminants are produced in the combustion process, the rate at which subsequent gas-phase reactions and physical removal processes occur, and the efficiency of air pollution control devices. The mathematical model, a material mass balance considering the factors and processes of the conceptual model, would provide mathematical expressions for the emission rates of the various gaseous effluents. The computational model...

The Pairing Principle

A major virtue of domain-closure mechanisms is that what happens after the transition state is nearly as controllable as what happens before. A special advantage is the conservation of free energy discussed in past papers as free-energy complementarity 9,10 and illustrated particularly well by Fisher and co-workers using glutamic dehydrogenase 7 , It is a general basis for the evolution of free-energy management toward the thermodynamic limit without loss of speed. By refining through evolution the details of domain closure, less and less of the free energy released in a given protein process is lost as heat. Specialists in multienzyme processes have always been attracted to complementarity for obvious reasons. It seems reasonable to expect that such improvements are open to any evolving system. The latter conjecture becomes even more reasonable with the finding of an enzyme mechanism ideally suited to such improvements.

Energy And Polymer Recycling

Increasingly, there is a demand, as with other materials, that plastics should be recycled. For most thermoplastics this is a possible route for postconsumer material, and this is dealt with in more detail in other chapters. However, there is some confusion over the energy savings that can be achieved by plastics recycling, and this can lead to conflicting decisions. reduce the average energy per kilogram even further. In practice the average saving will be lower because it is not possible to recover 100 and some melt losses do occur. The example does, however, illustrate the critical point that repeated recycling can lead to energy savings because the initial production energy is spread over more than one use. 1. Because the two recovery methods act on different components of the gross energy, they are not mutually exclusive. Mechanical recycling acts on production energy by spreading it over multiple uses. In contrast, energy recovery acts on feedstock energy by attempting to...

Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents

Energy requirements must be adjusted in accordance with habitual physical activity. Torun 38 compiled 42 studies on the activity patterns of 6,400 children living in urban, rural, industrialized and developing settings from around the world. Compared with children in industrialized societies, children in developing rural areas expended more energy in domestic and productive work, and less energy in low energy activities such as attending school. The TEE of rural boys and girls was 10, 15 and 25 higher at 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19 years of age, respectively, than their urban counterparts.

Energy And Environmental Assessments

A study by Franklin Associates in 1992 examined the energy requirements for plastics and their alternatives in packaging materials 25 . Energy requirements for fabrication were presented for blow molding, injection molding, fabrication of film, and thermoforming and are summarized in Table 4.1. Analyses of energy requirements for resin production and for manufacture, fabrication, and recycling systems for several types of resins and container systems are shown in Table 4.2. Other studies of energy consumption for plastic packaging are also available 26, 27 .

Molecular Interaction Fields

Molecular recognition occurs in 3D space and, therefore, 3D descriptors seem to be the most natural choice for QSAR studies. However, in order to generate stable and predictive 3D-QSAR models, two hurdles need to be overcome. First, a biophore pattern needs to be identified for aligning the corresponding parts of each molecule, which is a challenging task for heterogeneous datasets. Second, for each molecule in the dataset, the biologically relevant conformer has to be selected, which is very demanding for conformationally flexible molecules with thousands or even millions of low energy conformations. Two approaches will be exemplified that are not dependent on finding a common alignment rule. Both descriptor schemes are derived from GRID (27,28), where the interaction energies between chemical probes and the target molecule(s) are calculated at each single grid point in a 3D cage. These probes represent van der Waals, H-bonding, electrostatic, and hydrophobic properties, and commonly...

Electron Transport And Atp Synthesis At The Inner Mitochondrial Membrane

We will also examine the enzyme that uses the energy of the proton gradient to synthesize ATP the FoF ATP syn-thase. After examining the various stages in the production of ATP, we will summarize the energy conservation steps at each stage, as well as the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate the different pathways.

Some Electron Transport Enzymes Are Unique to Plant Mitochondria

In addition to the set of electron carriers described in the previous section, plant mitochondria contain some components not found in mammalian mitochondria (see Figure 11.8). Note that none of these additional enzymes pump protons and that energy conservation is therefore lower whenever they are used

ATP Synthesis in the Mitochondrion Is Coupled to Electron Transport

In experiments conducted with the use of isolated mitochondria, electrons derived from internal (matrix) NADH give ADP O ratios (the number of ATPs synthesized per two electrons transferred to oxygen) of 2.4 to 2.7 (Table 11.1). Succinate and externally added NADH each give values in the range of 1.6 to 1.8, while ascorbate, which serves as an artificial electron donor to cytochrome c, gives values of 0.8 to 0.9. Results such as these (for both plant and animal mitochondria) have led to the general concept that there are three sites of energy conservation along the electron transport chain, at complexes I, III, and IV. The mechanism of mitochondrial ATP synthesis is based on the chemiosmotic hypothesis, described in Web Topic 6.3 and Chapter 7, which was first proposed in 1961 by Nobel laureate Peter Mitchell as a general mechanism of energy conservation across biological membranes (Nicholls and Ferguson 2002). According to the chemiosmotic theory, the orientation of electron carriers...

Plants Have Several Mechanisms That Lower the ATP Yield

As we have seen, a complex machinery is required for a high efficiency of energy conservation in oxidative phosphorylation. So it is perhaps surprising that plant mitochondria have several functional proteins that reduce this efficiency. Probably plants are less limited by the energy supply (sunlight) than by other factors in the environment (e.g., access to nitrogen or phosphate). As a consequence, adaptational flexibility may be more important than energetic efficiency. When electrons pass to the alternative pathway from the ubiquinone pool, two sites of proton pumping (at complexes III and IV) are bypassed. Because there is no energy conservation site in the alternative pathway between ubiquinone and oxygen, the free energy that would normally be conserved as ATP is lost as heat when electrons are shunted through the alternative pathway.

Intrinsic Response Function

The intrinsic response function (IRF) is the response of the scintillation camera, excluding the collimator, to a pencil beam of radiation. It is determined by two factors the uncertainty of position estimation in the camera-detector system and the effects of scattering in the crystal. For low energy incident photons the scattering in the crystal is a relatively small effect. However, at higher energies, e.g. for medium energy photons emitted from isotopes such as In-111, scattering in the crystal becomes important. The uncertainty of light estimation is determined by the noise in the signals from the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), resulting from the statistical variation in the production and collection of scintillation photons produced in the gamma camera, and the position estimation method used. For higher energy photons, a significant fraction of photons undergo Compton scattering in the crystal and the resulting spread in energy deposition also contributes to the intrinsic...

The Importance of Walking

Walking must become a skill it must be so automatic that the person can turn his or her attention to the requirements of the environment, such as traffic, while continuing to walk. For walking to be safe the individual must be able to recover balance when disturbed, either by the act of walking or by outside forces. To walk more than a few steps requires gait that is as energy efficient as possible. To get around the house in a reasonable time requires less energy and speed than to walk around a supermarket or cross a street. The individual needs enough endurance and skill to walk the necessary distances at a practical speed (Lerner-Frankiel et al. 1986).

Energy Windowbased Approaches

The triple energy window method77 was suggested as an extension of the DEW technique. Coincidence events are recorded in three windows two overlapping windows having the same UET settings (450 keV) located below the photopeak window and a regular window centred on the photopeak and adjacent to the low windows. A calibrating function that accounts for the distribution of scattered coincidences at low energies is obtained by calculating the ratio of the coincidence events recorded in both low energy windows for the scanned object and for a homogeneous uniform cylinder. The scatter component in the standard acquisition window is then estimated from the calibrating function and the narrower low energy window.

Technique and Normal Appearances

Image different nuclei (notably phosphorus), clinical MRI is essentially concerned with producing images that reflect the distribution of hydrogen nuclei and to a certain extent their environment (what sort of chemical bonds and structures they are involved in). Normally the spinning protons are randomly aligned, as are the small magnetic fields they produce, and therefore there is no net magnetic effect. If, however, the patient is placed within a huge magnetic field (from 0.15 to 3.0 tesla or more in some experimental scanners) there will be a predominant alignment along the axis of the field. This is referred to as the magnetization of the sample. In order for an MRI signal to be produced the magnetization must be deflected from this parallel state. This can be achieved by the application of a second magnetic field perpendicular to the original field. This deflects the magnetization. As soon as the net magnetization is deflected from its initial state it starts to precess like a...

Protein Identification by Analysis of Uninterpreted MSMS Data

MS MS spectra result from the fragmentation of peptide ions in a MS instrument. Fragmentation along the peptide backbone yields product ions that can be predictably related to sequences (Roepstorff and Fohlman, 1984). In most commonly used tandem mass analyzers, low-energy collision induced dissociation predominantly yields b- and y-ions, which correspond to peptide fragments that retain charge at their N and C termini, respectively (Figure 15.3). Other fragment ions, including immonium ions, a-, c-, x- and z-ions, as well as associated fragments due to loss of water and ammonia are less commonly seen, although these are more prominently formed by high-energy collision induced dissociation (Baldwin et al., 2001). In addition, many amino acid modifications produce characteristic features in MS MS

Waste to Energy Conversion

Carpet waste has a simple composition compared to some other plastic waste streams. The major component in current carpet design is nylon, which requires up to 155 MJ kg to manufacture, but gives off 29 MJ kg when burned (see Table 16.13 89 ). The criterion for energy efficiency for incineration is that if it takes more than twice as much energy to make a plastic than what is recovered by burning, it is better to recycle the plastic than to burn it 61, 66 . This criterion clearly favors recycling nylon carpet waste over incineration. In general, the following factors have made incineration a viable option for carpet waste

Scintillation Detectors in PET

Siemens Pet Block Detector Bgo Crystal

Of NaI(Tl) and the high stopping power of BGO in one crystal 9 . In spite of its high light output ( 75 of NaI(Tl)), the overall energy resolution of LSO is not as good as NaI(Tl). This is due to intrinsic properties of the crystal. Another disadvantage for general applications of this scintillator is that one of the naturally occurring isotopes present (176Lu, 2.6 abundance), is itself radioactive. It has a half-life of 3.8 x 1010 years and decays by P- emission and the subsequent release of y photons with energies from 88-400 keV. The intrinsic radioactivity concentration of LSO is approximately 280 Bq cc approximately 12 counts per sec per gram would be emitted that would be detected within a 126-154 keV energy window. Thus its use in low-energy applications is restricted. This background has less impact in PET measurements due to the higher energy windows set for the annihilation radiation and the use of coincidence counting. The next two detector schemes are attempts at reducing...

Origin of Biomolecules Origin of Homochirality

In this paper we try to follow how the Universe developed from Big Bang, when immense energies were acting, to reach such stage of evolution when low energy processes could synthesize molecules. The environments for syntheses are the interstellar space or our habitat, the planet Earth or, possibly, other planets.

Fermentation Does Not Liberate All the Energy Available in Each Sugar Molecule

Because of the low efficiency of energy conservation under fermentation, an increased rate of glycolysis is needed to sustain the ATP production necessary for cell survival. This is called the Pasteur effect after the French microbiologist Louis Pasteur, who first noted it when yeast switched from aerobic respiration to anaerobic alcoholic fermentation. The higher rates of glycolysis result from changes in glycolytic metabolite levels, as well as from increased expression of genes encoding enzymes of gly-colysis and fermentation (Sachs et al. 1996).

The red cell membrane

Sphingomyelin Phosphatidylcholine

The lipid bilayer consists of approximately equal molar quantities of phospholipids and cholesterol molecules. The charged phosphatidyl groups of the phospholipids are hydrophilic and form the outer and inner surfaces of the bilayer. The interior of the membrane is formed by hydrophobic bonding of the acyl chains and cholesterol, which form the internal parts of the two leaflets (Figure 8.1). The arrangement is energy efficient but the two leaflets are not symmetrical. The outer leaflet consists mainly of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, inner leaflet phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine (Figure 8.2). The maintenance of the asymmetry and the proper function of the membrane requires energy. In the mature red cells this is provided by ATP from the glycolytic pathway and reducing power mainly in the form of glutathione.

Typical Gross Energies For Polymer Production

The actual values vary from plant to plant. In practice the direct energy consumption varies by 10 and, when the fuel infrastructure of the different countries is included, the variations in gross energies are of the order of 17 . These variations will include effects due to age and size of plant, level of maintenance, and variations in technology as well as accuracy of data reporting.

Joel G Burken And Xingmao Ma

Many volatile organic compounds pose a unique type of threat to our environment, existing over vast areas in multiple media water, soil and vapour. Phytoremediation applications are also unique as they are both highly visible and publicly acceptable and are also both long-term and low-energy to apply. These attribute pairings are quite unusual, being mutually exclusive for all other remedial approaches. The other attribute that is unmatched by any other technology is the ability to concurrently remediate and ecologically restore the environment. The listed phytoremediation traits do not yet include rapid, highly effective, or well understood. Research and engineering findings covered herein address these concerns and reveal how and why phytoremediation can offer an unmatched possibilities to treat volatile organic compounds in particular.

Structure of the mind id ego superego

Main points Freud further divided the conscious and unconscious mind into three structures or systems that performed different roles. These systems he named the id, ego, and superego. Freud viewed human beings as energy systems, where only one system can be in control at any given time, while the other two systems give themselves over to the psychic energy of the one in control.

Interaction of Photons with Matter

Atomic Level Tomography

The photoelectric effect dominates in human tissue at energies less than approximately 100 keV. It is of particular significance for X-ray imaging, and for imaging with low-energy radionuclides. It has little impact at the energy of annihilation radiation (511 keV), but with the development of combined PET CT systems, where the CT system is used for attenuation correction of the PET data, knowledge of the physics of interaction via the photoelectric effect is extremely important when adjusting the attenuation factors from the X-ray CT to the values appropriate for 511 keV radiation.

Professor Sant Saran Bhojwani

Of the Central Tassar Research & Training Institute, Ranchi. He was a Visiting Senior Fellow of the Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi and made a major contribution to the designing and production and planning of the DBT-Sponsored Plant Tissue Culture Pilot Plant. He was also a consultant to the Commercial Plant Tissue Culture Laboratories such as A.V. Thomas, Cochin and Aranaya Micropropagation, New Delhi.

Geometric Response Function

Of the three components of the collimator response, the geometric response is the easiest to treat theoretically. In general, the GRF is determined by two factors the GRF of a given hole and the hole pattern of the collimator. In collimators designed for low energy photons, the septal thickness is generally small compared to the intrinsic resolution and the aspect ratio of the collimator, i.e., the ratio of hole size to hole length, is usually large. In these cases, the average GRF, obtained by averaging the GRFs from all possible source positions relative to the center of a collimator hole, is often used. This averaging can be carried out during the derivation of the GRF and is equivalent to moving the collimator during acquisition. Formulations for the GRF have been derived using this moving collimator approximation for arbitrary hole shapes including parallel-1, cone-, and fan-beam collimators.2 3 Recently, a formulation has been developed to compute the collimator response...

Selectivity of RAR Ligands and RAR Isotypes

The conformational profiles and energies of the two enantiomers are, by definition, mirror images of each other. Thus, the ligand conformational arguments made by Klaholz et al. 28 are not correct. If one superimposes the mirror image of the inactive enantiomer on the active isomer it is apparent that the bound conformations of the two ligands are similar. The A-rings (except for the fluorine), amide groups and alcohol moiety superimpose almost exactly. The major difference in the conformations is the torsion angle (C 0)-CH-C(Ar)-C(Ar) it is 53c and -102 c for the active and inactive enantiomer, respectively. A quick MM2 calculation predicts a 119 c torsion angle is a low energy local conformational minimum 29 . These calculations suggest that it is unlikely that the conformation energy difference between the active and inactive enantiomers is close to 4 Kcal mol-1. It would appear that ligand conformational strain does not play a dominant role in the large difference in affinity...

Surface Modifications for Reducing Nonspecific Protein Adsorption

There have been many interests in membrane processes for last decade because of they are extremely efficient, have a low energy consumption, and are easy to carry out. Nowadays, membranes are used widely, especially in biomedical applications such as dialysis, plasmapheresis, and oxygenation of blood during cardiac surgery. However, it is well known that the major obstacle to the extensive use of membrane processes in therapeutic treatment is protein fouling of polymeric membrane materials. Protein deposition on the membrane surface can cause unstable transport characteristics, and cellular interactions with artificial surface are also assumed to be mediated through adsorbed proteins (Deppisch et al. 1998). Designing a polymer surface that rejects proteins (i. e., a nonfouling surface) has been a central issue in the field ofbiomedical materials research (Ikada 1994 Klee and Hocker 1999 Ratner et al. 1979). The adsorption of proteins is highly complex. We do understand that these...

Evolutionary Significance of Regeneration and Fibrosis

The most logical conclusion, therefore, is that regeneration is suppressed in most adults because they exist under conditions where fibrosis is more energy-efficient and provides more assurance of survival. This suppression has been related to the maturity of the immune system in both fetal versus adult mammalian skin and limb regeneration in the frog, Xenopus (McCallion and Ferguson, 1996 Harty et al., 2003).

Multiple Energy Window Methods

In the methods discussed so far, a relatively narrow energy window is set over the photopeak and events recorded below the lower energy threshold are assumed to be unwanted events, mainly due to scatter in the object being imaged. However, when small discrete detectors are used in high resolution tomographs, such as those designed for animal imaging studies, a large proportion of events recorded in the low energy range are due to scattering in the detectors and these are potentially useful events.

Attenuation Correction Using CT Data

More minor problems include the fact that j values do not scale linearly from the low energy of X-rays (approximately 60 keV) to the relatively high energy of annihilation photons (511 keV) - an issue which may be further complicated when contrast agents are used as an adjunct to the CT study. Finally, CT images are normally calibrated in Hounsfield units and must first be converted to j values. The last two challenges can be addressed by segmenting the CT images into a discrete set of tissue types (see Chapter 8 and 90 ). Once the

Sulfur Dioxide And Particulates

The most consistent relationships between specific air pollutants and preterm birth have been reported for sulfur dioxide and particulates. Of particular relevance to the United States is a study of births in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, conducted between 1985 and 1998, which reported an association between sulfur dioxide air pollution and preterm birth with an adjusted OR of 1.09 (95 percent confidence interval CI 1.01 to 1.19) per 5.0 parts per billion (ppb) (14.3 micrograms per cubic meter Mg m3 ) of sulfur dioxide (Liu et al., 2003). The mean daily concentration of sulfur dioxide during the study period was 4.9 ppb, with a maximum peak concentration (over 1 hour) of 128.5 ppb. Studies of women in the Czech Republic and Beijing, China, who were exposed to sulfur dioxide pollutant concentrations higher than usual for those in the United States reported concentration-dependent relationships between ambient air sulfur dioxide concentrations and preterm birth, with adjusted ORs...

Principles of Tofsims

TOF-SIMS is suitable for highly sensitive detection because TOF MS offers extremely high transmission in combination with parallel detection of all masses. Moreover, TOF-SIMS is able to prevent insult of a sample from charge-up using a low-energy ( 20 eV) electron flood gun, which is pulse-controlled with a primary ion beam. In addition, with TOF-SIMS, biomaterials, including proteins, are qualitatively and quantitatively measurable, and the distribution of particular molecules may also be ascertained.

Predisaster Risk Factors

Several studies have shown that a personal history of psychopathology is a risk factor for poor mental health after a disaster 6, 47, 75, 100, 103 . The Bromet et al. research program on the mental health effects of the 1979 nuclear power plant accident at TMI was the first large-scale study to use a semi-structured diagnostic interview schedule. That study showed that pre-accident history of depression and anxiety disorders was among the most significant predictors of post-TMI depression and anxiety.

Potassium Iodide KI Prophylaxis

According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) International Basic Safety Standards, the generic optimized intervention level for iodine blockade is 100 mGy (10rad) of avertable committed absorbed dose to the thyroid. Iodine prophylaxis is recommended when this projected dose is exceeded 10 .

Stakeholder Involvement 1321 Potential Benefits and Detriments

Government agencies and international organizations (DOE 1998 EPA 2003 NEA 2004) have developed and published documents articulating the motivations, anticipated benefits, and methods for stakeholder involvement. Based on a paper by van den Hove (2003), the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA 2004) has articulated three categories of benefits arising from stakeholder involvement

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

Boron neutron capture therapy is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when a stable B-10 isotope is irradiated with low-energy neutrons to yield high LET radiation consisting of alpha particles and recoiling Li-7 which are energetic and cytotoxic 94 . To deliver the approximately 109 number ofB-10 atoms needed to effectively eradicate a tumour cell, dendrimers have been conjugated with a polyhedral borane and subsequently attached to a monoclonal antibody. The number of boron atoms range from 250 to 1000 per dendrimer molecule. Unfortunately, in-vivo studies with mice revealed hepatic and splenic uptake over tumour localisation. Instead of attaching the polyhedral borane to the periphery or surface of the dendrimer, the borane cluster has been incorporated into the interior of the dendrimer 95 . Decaborane was reacted with the alkyne functionality located in the interior of the dendrimer to give 0-carboranes. The incorporation into the interior of the dendrimer increased their...

Harmful Effects of Radioiodine

High doses of radioiodine (more than 5 Gy) may lead to necrosis and apoptosis of thyroid cells thus inducing hypothyroidism. In the case of a nuclear reactor emergency, exposure to high radiation doses sufficient to cause hypothy-roidism may only occur in people within very close proximity to the nuclear power plant. After the Chernobyl reactor catastrophe, hypothy-roidism occurred in very few people, only those working at the nuclear power plant at the time of the incident.

Waste Recycling and Pollution Control

Costs of operations, the true energy costs, as well as the pollution potential of the various processes. The value of recycling is not always understood or appreciated by all scientists and economists.23 This lack of understanding is behind some of the poorly thought out green legislation that often has little effect on or even be detrimental to the environment. In promoting recycling, the primary consideration should be the existence of viable markets for the recycled products and their cost competitiveness. In cases where recycling is not feasible or is too expensive in terms of energy requirements, it is important to develop different technologies that would slow down or eliminate the use of critical resources.

The Thyroid and Iodine

Radioactive iodine is a byproduct of the fusion of uranium atoms. Minimal radioiodine is normally released into the environment from operating nuclear reactors, whether such reactors are operated for power production, for production of radioisotopes, for material testing or for research. In the case of nuclear power plants, the uranium fuel is contained in sealed metal tubes (fuel rods) and placed inside a steel reactor containment several inches thick, which itself is located inside a thick (several feet) concrete reactor building 1 . Before radioactive iodine from the nuclear fuel of a nuclear power plant can reach the environment, the fuel rods in the reactor core must be damaged, with additional damage to the containment enclosing the reactor. However, if the reactor construction does not fulfill usual safety standards, radioio-dine may be released into the environment if there is a nuclear emergency, such as the Chernobyl reactor catastrophe. On the other hand, radioiodine may be...

Effect of Collimator Detector Response on Spect Images

As demonstrated in section 2, the collimator-detector response depends on the source-to-collimator distance. As a result, the effect on SPECT images is relatively complex. Consider first low energy photons where the penetration and collimator scatter components can be neglected. Figure 7 shows the

Collimators

The parallel-hole collimator is configured as a honeycomb with lead or tungsten septa that form thousands of straight parallel channels so that the scintillation camera records only those photons that strike the detector surface from an approximately perpendicular direction. A typical parallelhole collimator might have a bore diameter of roughly 2 mm, and a bore length of approximately 4 cm giving a high degree of angular selectivity. In this way, the collimator design is the most important factor in determining the geometric efficiency or sensitivity of the imaging system. For example, a typical Anger camera equipped with a low-energy parallel-hole collimator detects roughly one in every ten thousand gamma rays emitted isotropically by a point source in air. Even fewer gamma rays will be detected if the point source is located within the body or other object, due to the effects of photon attenuation by the material surrounding the source. Therefore, the system sensitivity (obtained...

Release Assessment

The conceptual model of release includes contaminant inputs and generation processes, contaminant release mechanisms, and contaminant release routes. These, in turn, involve a variety of physical, chemical, and biological processes. For example, a conceptual model of the release of gaseous effluent from a coal-fired power plant would include the characteristics of the coal, chemical and physical processes responsible for the production of gaseous and particulate contaminants in the combustion process, subsequent gas-phase reactions and physical removal processes that alter the contaminant composition, and contaminant removal from gaseous effluent by air pollution control devices. A conceptual model of contami Process knowledge can be used to estimate the atmospheric release rate of SO2 from a coal-fired power plant. This is accomplished by first developing a conceptual model for SO2 generation and release. From process knowledge it is known that SO2 is produced when coal containing...

Conversion Processes

Unlike polymer production, the conversion industry is fragmented and ranges from large modern plants, continuously producing a single product such as sheet or PET bottles, to small jobbing molders that produce short runs of many different products, usually by injection molding. For these small molders, the frequent stopping, starting, and mold changes on machines that are not always tailored to the job in hand means that they are usually less energy efficient than the large-volume producers who use machines specifically matched to their purpose. 3. Few operators monitor separately the energy consumption of the machines and the energy used in space heating and lighting. Consequently, the data of Table 3.3 refer to plant performance rather than machine performance.

Vol Surf

The GRID molecular interaction fields (MIFs) are also the basis for a novel, alignment-free 3D QSAR methodology called Almond (28,34). Whereas in standard 3D-QSAR methods like Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (35) (CoMFA) conformational flexibility and multiple possibilities for pharmaco-phore alignment have to be considered, Almond is not dependent on a molecular alignment, since it operates on pairwise pharmacophoric distances only. For this purpose, one or several low energy conformations for each molecule are characterized with the hydrophobic, amide, and carbonyl GRID probes to sample energetically favorable interaction sites representing potential hydrophobic and H-bond donor acceptor contacts with a macromolecular target. For each probe, a representative set of interaction sites in 3D space is identified and the product of interaction energies for each pairwise combination of GRID nodes is calculated. In contrast to a conventional correlation transform only the largest...

Example

Selenium is a trace constituent in coal that is released in the gaseous effluent from coal-fired power plants. The average atmospheric concentration of selenium at a certain location downwind from a power plant is 5 x 10-6 mg(c) m3, and the deposition velocity is 0.2 m s. What is the selenium flux to the ground at this location

Example 104

The skin is the major organ of the integumentary system. As the primary barrier between the external environment and the body, the skin plays an important role in limiting exposures to environmental contaminants. In cases where the contamination is not inhaled or ingested, the extent to which a contaminant can penetrate or be absorbed through the skin determines the person's exposure. The skin comprises three layers. From the outside in, these are the epidermis, which protects the skin the dermis, which contains blood vessels, sensory receptors, and various glands and the hypodermis, which connects the skin to the internal organs and tissues and contains an insulating layer of fat cells. The epidermis consists of a sequence of layers in which cells are generated in an innermost basal layer. As these cells undergo rapid division, younger cells displace older cells that migrate outward over a period of several weeks. As these cells migrate outward, they produce a tough, fibrous protein...

Clinical Evaluation

Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) has also been recently applied to assess anteroposterior knee laxity (14-17). The RSA technique is well known in the arthroplasty field and utilizes Ta markers to determine the three-dimensional positional changes. This technique provides greater insight into the knee motion after injury or reconstruction but does require the implantation of permanent markers into the knee and radiographs at low energy to document marker position in space.

Summary

The CDRF in SPECT has several components the geometric, septal penetration, septal scatter and intrinsic response function components. Analytical formulations for the geometric component have been developed, while Monte Carlo simulation has allowed estimation of the septal penetration and septal scatter components. The geometric response dominates the resolution characteristics for low energy photons and medium and higher energy photons when used with well-designed collimators. The width of the geometric response is proportional to source-to-collimator distance. In SPECT, the intrinsic component plays a relatively small role compared to the geometric response due to the relatively large distances to the collimator from many of the organs of interest.

Example 141

14.3.2.1 Framework for Decision Analysis In general, decisions to which decision analysis methods are applied are more complex than indicated in Example 14.1. Modern approaches to decision analysis (Lifson 1972 French 1986) presume a rational decision maker confronted with a decision-making situation on a system in which a set of alternatives, X is defined a set of states of nature, Sj , is known and an outcome, Ztj, is associated with each alternative and each state of nature (Table 14.1). For simplicity, this description is limited to finite, discrete sets of alternatives and states of nature. In environmental risk management, alternatives are usually related to control of environmental emissions or remediation of contaminated sites. An example is a coal-fired power plant which is required to reduce ambient concentrations of SO2 in a nearby town. Alternatives to accomplish this goal include (1) switching to use of coal with lower sulfur content, (2) increasing the height of the...

Historical Overview

Starting from the work of Janet and Freud and early descriptions of irritable heart syndrome and shell shock among soldiers of the American Civil War and World War I 13,14 , research on high-impact events, such as disasters and life-threatening occurrences, and more ordinary life events has been under way for at least a century. Since World War II, a number of studies have assessed the emotional consequences of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes, and more recently technological and human-made catastrophes, such as the nuclear power plant accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) in the USA and Chernobyl in the Ukraine 15-17 , the Nazi Holocaust 18, 19 , and the Cambodian massacre 20 .

The Energy Crisis

Endeavors and that too at only a minimal rate. Accelerating technological breakthroughs that improve energy efficiency and deliver alternative energy options should be a crucial component of any long-term strategy on ensuring energy for the future. The gloomy scenario of possible energy and raw material limitations applies only to the long-term rather than to the immediate future. Even if we assume that the remaining global oil potential of about 2 trillion barrels13 was all that was available, this still allows about 100 years of use at present rates of energy consumption. Assuming that technologies to recover estimated but unproven oil reserves and including coal14 and natural gas reserves become available, this time frame can be as long as a few centuries.15 The estimated reserves are continually upgraded, as new information becomes available, making the numerical values of reserves woeful underestimates. Potential fuel reserves in the United States that are more difficult to...

Anxiety and Phobias

Often, people have no actual experience of harm or unpleasantness regarding things that they come to fear. For example, many people are at least somewhat uneasy about flying on airplanes or about the prospect of having a nuclear power plant located near them, though few people have personally experienced harm caused by these things. Although people tend to pride themselves on how logical they are, they are often not very rational in appraising how dangerous or risky different events actually are. For example,

Serendipity

The scar became less depressed and the surface was demonstrably changed on skin surface topographic textural analysis by optical profilometry, erythema reflectance spectrometry, scar height measurements, and pliability scores (300-306). The pulsed dye laser rapidly became an instrument widely used for scar treatment or as adjunctive therapy. McDaniel reported in 1995 and 1996 (307,308) his results with striae distensae, which are in some ways histologic equivalents of atrophic scars. Use of the pulsed dye laser with a 10 mm spot size and a low energy fluence of 3 J cm2 showed clinical improvement and measurable improvement of skin texture by optical profilometry. These results are reproducible in some capable hands (306) but not in others (309,310). Since striae are not made to disappear but only contract slightly, hyperbole by the lay press played a prominent and unnecessary role.

Unresolved Issues

Deliberations of Working Group 4 Is there a new dynamic of dialogue and decision making Presented at Stakeholder Confidence and Radioactive Waste Disposal, First Workshop and Meeting of the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management, Aug 28-31, 2000, Paris. Paris Nuclear Energy Agency, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. NEA Nuclear Energy Agency, Radioactive Waste Management Committee (2004). Stakeholder Involvement Techniques Short Guide and Annotated Bibliography. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris NEA NEA 5418. Also available at (accessed Mar 29, 2006)

Compton Cameras

The first application of Compton imaging to nuclear medicine was proposed in 1974.36 This was followed by series of seminal papers by Singh and co-workers describing analytical and experimental results of a Compton camera using pixelated germanium as the first detector and a standard Anger camera as second detector.37 This work was continued at the University of Michigan in collaboration with CERN38 leading to the development of the C-SPRINT a prototype Compton camera system for low energy gamma ray imaging39 and the design of a Compton camera for high energies with CZT detectors.40 More recently, the potential of the Compton camera approach for scintimammography has also been reported.41 It is also expected that working Compton cameras based on silicon microstrips and

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