Contents

Preface xi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Risk Analysis 2

1.2 Risk 4

1.3 Contaminants in the Environment 8

1.4 Uses of Environmental Risk Assessment 10

1.5 Risk Assessment Process 13 References 19 Additional Reading 21 Problems 21

2 Fundamental Aspects of Environmental Modeling 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Modeling Process 23

2.3 Physical and Mathematical Basis for Risk Assessment Models 29

2.4 Contaminant Transport Equation 44 References 55 Problems 55

3 Release Assessment 60

3.1 Introduction 60

3.2 Conceptual Model 60

3.3 Contaminant Identification 62

3.4 Emission-Rate Quantification 66 References 78 Additional Reading 78 Problems 78

4 Environmental Transport Theory 81

4.1 Introduction 81

4.2 One-Dimensional Solutions of the Contaminant Transport Equation 83

4.3 Three-Dimensional Contaminant Transport 96

4.4 Advanced Solution Methods 97 References 100 Additional Reading 100 Problems 101

5 Surface Water Transport 104

5.1 Introduction 104

5.2 Types of Surface Water Bodies 106

5.3 Sorption 109

5.4 Transport Modeling 116 References 123 Additional Reading 124 Problems 124

6 Groundwater Transport 127

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 Subsurface Characterization 129

6.3 Saturated Flow in Porous Media 130

6.4 Sorption 137

6.5 Subsurface Contaminant Transport Modeling 139

6.6 Other Considerations in Groundwater Transport 148 References 152 Additional Reading 153 Problems 153

7 Atmospheric Transport 156

7.1 Introduction 156

7.2 Atmospheric Dispersion 156

7.3 Atmospheric Transport Models 161

7.4 Other Considerations 172 References 178 Additional Reading 179 Problems 179

8 Food Chain Transport 183

8.1 Introduction 183

8.2 Concentration in Soil 186

8.3 Concentration in Vegetation 190

8.4 Concentration in Animals 195 References 197 Problems 197

9 Exposure Assessment 199

9.1 Introduction 199

9.2 Dose 200

9.3 Contaminant Intake 204

9.4 Dose Calculations 209 References 216 Problems 217

10 Basic Human Toxicology 219

10.1 Introduction 219

10.2 Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 220

10.3 Mechanisms and Effects of Toxicity 237 References 242 Additional Reading 244 Problems 244

11 Dose-Response and Risk Characterization 245

11.1 Introduction 245

11.2 Biological Basis of Dose-Response Modeling 245

11.3 Elements of Quantitative Dose-Response Analysis 247

11.4 Dose-Response Modeling 261

11.5 Risk Characterization 267

11.6 Regulatory Implementation 270 References 277 Additional Reading 279 Problems 279

12 Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses 283

12.1 Introduction 283

12.2 Types and Sources of Uncertainty 283

12.3 Statistical Fundamentals 289

12.4 Uncertainty Propagation 298 References 311 Problems 314

13 Stakeholder Involvement and Risk Communication 316

13.1 Introduction 316

13.2 Stakeholder Involvement 317

13.3 Risk Communication 325 References 332 Problems 335

14 Environmental Risk Management 336

14.1 Introduction 336

14.2 Risk Management Process 336

14.3 Risk Management Methods 337 References 354 Problems 355

15 Environmental Laws and Regulations 356

15.1 Introduction 356

15.2 General Legal and Regulatory Structure for Environmental Protection 356

15.3 Major Federal Environmental Laws and Regulations 357

15.4 CERCLA Process 367

15.5 Additional Regulations 372 References 373 Problems 374

Appendix A Mathematical Tools 375

A.1 Special Functions 375

A. 2 Laplace Transforms 376

References 380

Additional Reading 380

Appendix B Degradation and Decay Parameters 381

Index

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