1. Hypostatic pneumonia.
2. Pressure sores.
3. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
4. Muscle wasting and stiffening of joints, making subsequent mobilisation more difficult and prolonged.
5. Skeletal decalcification and the formation of urinary tract calculi.
7. Neurological complications such as: (i) Common peroneal nerve palsy. This sometimes results from a less than ideal posture of the leg when external rotation leads to pressure in the region of the fibular neck, or it sometimes occurs from pressure against a splint, (ii) Ulnar neuropathy, from the patient repeatedly trying to change position using downwards pressure of the elbows against the bed when use of a so-called monkey pole would avoid this.
K. Cardiovascular complications, such as cardiac failure due to weakening of the cardiac muscle and poor venous return. 9. Psychiatric complications such as depression.
Avoiding these complications, as well as the costs of protracted in-patient treatment, are the main reasons for the continuing trend towards the operative management of many fractures. In the case of multiple injuries, internal fixation is of considerable help to the nursing staff in their care of the patient.
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