Pathological fractures a A

pathological fracture is one which occurs in an abnormal or diseased bone. If the osseous abnormality reduces the strength of the bone then the force required to produce fracture is reduced, and may even become trivial. For example, a secondary tumour deposit may lead to a pathological fracture of the subtrochanteric region of the femur - a common site.

9. Indirect violence: Very frequently, fractures result from indirect violence. A twisting or bending stress is applied to a hone, and this results in its fracture at some distance from the application of the causal force. For example, a rotational stress applied to the foot may cause a spiral fracture of the tibia. Indirect violence is also the commonest cause of dislocation.

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