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□ Fig. 8. Fragment of a preparation of a resected stomach (section). Whitish, firm cancerous tissue, growing to invade the serosa, underlies a flat ulcer (arrows), 4 cm on each side. Histologically, a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach invading the serous membrane
□ Fig. 9. Macrospecimen of a resected stomach. A 1- to 1.5-cm thick (versus normal 0.4-0.7 cm) rigid wall is distinctly seen in the section. Histologically, a signet-ring cell gastric cancer with the pronounced stromal component invading the serous membrane

is only relative, because it should be remembered that they are only specific stages of development of gastric carcinoma [22], whereas polypiform tumor is, as a rule, an exophytic component of carcinoma characterized by predominantly endophytic growth.

Many histological classifications of gastric cancer have been proposed, the most popular being those proposed by P. Laurent, S. Ming, and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (1992). The histological classification proposed by the WHO in 1990 differentiates between the following groups of gastric carcinomas:

1. Adenocarcinoma:

a. papillary b. tubular c. mucous d. signet-ring cell carcinoma

2. Adenosquamous

3. Squamous

4. Small-cell

5. Non-differentiated

6. Other carcinomas (choriocarcinoma, embryonic carcinoma)

The histological variants of carcinomas listed above are subdivided into the following five grades, depending on their differentiation:

1. GX: grade cannot be estimated

2. G1: well-differentiated carcinomas

3. G2: moderately differentiated carcinomas

4. G4: poorly differentiated carcinomas

5. G4: non-differentiated carcinomas

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