Personal Guidebook to Grief Recovery
Alfred Adler was among the first to propose that pathological grief and bereavement can stem from the trauma of the death of a loved one or significant other. In this sense, it can be considered a type of PTSD. Jacobs (1999, p. 23) states, The disorder is one of a class of disorders, including Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder that occur after an event in a person's life which opens a period of risk for the disorder it may prove to be an adult form of Separation Anxiety Disorder. Mardi Horowitz and colleagues (Horowitz et al., 2003) added to Adler's work and along with colleagues has introduced criteria for a disorder called complicated grief disorder. Jacobs (1999) refers to posttraumatic grief more simply as traumatic grief. Jacobs states that this term is preferable because it avoids confusing it with other forms of grief that are not particularly related to trauma and because it better captures the two underlying dimensions of the disorder-separation...
Religious societies, past and present, regarding this life merely as a transition to the life to come, interpret mild mental disturbances, such as grief and depression, as belonging to the conditio humana. The afflictions in life, given by God, should be suffered in patience. Relief is to be expected only in the beyond.
An example could be a traumatic incident, such as, a child witnessing the death of his mother in an accident with a red car. Because of the prior experience of horror, pain, grief, shock, and abandonment, which became associations, all red cars have stigmas attached to them. The emotional responses of collapse, crying, feeling intense loss, stopping breathing, etc., also become linked to this shattering trauma. This complete Gestalt becomes fused with red cars. No longer is this person free to see a red car without some internal, prior response and creation. Every time a red car goes by, there is an odd feeling, avoidance, or memory, that passes through consciousness because all red cars are linked to this over-whelming loss. Even years later, shopping, driving, or being a passenger in a red car evolves into a situation possibly to avoid or dislike intensely.
Living with someone who has schizophrenia is likely to be stressful and upsetting 63 . The term burden has been used to describe the difficulties of living with someone who is mentally ill, although this has a slightly pejorative ring. Hoenig and Hamilton 64, 65 made the important distinction between objective and subjective burden. The objective component relates closely to the level of social performance that patients can manage. However, it is probably the subjective component that is more important for the well-being both of informal carers and of patients. At given levels of objective burden, individual levels of distress show considerable variation 66 . The effects of burden on the social relationships of informal carers have been consistently documented 63 . Likewise, their difficulties are compounded by financial strain consequent on the duties of caring. The effect of burden on carers' own mental health is not inconsiderable. Indeed, Davis and Schultz 67 have established that...
Behavior and Medicine. 3d ed. Seattle Hogrefe & Huber, 2001. This large volume covers an extensive area of behavior and medicine, which include stress and various behaviors which may affect physiological health. The articles cover such behavioral issues as substance abuse, stress management, pain, placebos, AIDS, cardiovascular risk, and adherence to medical regimens. Other behavioral issues are covered which relate to love and work, as well as developmental issues from infancy to death, dying and grief. The book is readable and includes illustrations, bibliographies, summaries, and study questions at the end of each article.
Lundwall (1996) reported on an innovative approach that combines psychoeducation, support, and familial empowerment. The psychoeducational group is initially led by professionals and later is turned over to family members with the staff remaining in a case management or supportive role. Initially, the professional leads the rehabilitation process by providing psychoeducation, concrete guidelines, and coordination of service. Later, the leadership of the group is turned over to family members who have been empowered to lead their own group. The professional(s) continues in an advocacy, liaison, and service coordination role. The combination of education and support, followed by the assumption of leadership by family members, serves to increase the confidence of family members and, it is hoped, improve their ability to care for familial needs. In addition, the coordination of services helps meet the many needs of consumers and families. Families are supported in the experience of grief'...
Of the third device, his brother's name is uttered, and from then on until the point where the sphincter is consciously relaxed, the whole process involves implicit memory with no conscious recall. What I sur-mise-and my patient felt that this was correct-was that despite his sincere and profound grief, the fact of his brother's death released some implicitly stored feelings from childhood rivalry and anger with his brother which are unconsciously expressed as triumph after his death and which facilitate his ability to urinate in public.
Response disorder, such as PTSD or Complicated Grief Disorder. Next, the clinician should formulate the goals and issues to be addressed within treatment. Horowitz (2001) offers the configurational analysis method for this process. First, symptoms and problems are selected. Next, the states or situations in which intrusive symptoms and states of numbing and denial occur are determined. In the next step, unresolved stress-related topics and defensive control processes are addressed. The fourth step addresses self-other beliefs related to identity and relationship functioning. The fifth and final step of formulation is an integration of the previous steps into a treatment plan.
In 1944 Erich Lindemann did a systematic study of the grief reactions of individuals who had lost a close relative many of his subjects were relatives of those who died in the 1942 Cocoanut Grove nightclub fire in Boston that killed almost five hundred people. Lindemann was particularly interested in studying the differences between what he called normal grief and the abnormal reactions he saw in some of the survivors. He concluded from his study that acute grief is a definite syndrome (a combination of behaviors or symptoms which together may be signs of illness or pathology) with psychological and somatic symptomatology. In his description of normal grief, he said Common to all is the following syndrome sensations of somatic distress occurring in waves lasting from 20 minutes to an hour, a feeling of tightness in the throat, choking with shortness of breath, need for sighing, an empty feeling in the abdomen, lack of muscular power, and an intense subjective distress described as...
And their families focuses on enabling people to maximize their quality of life and address unresolved psychosocial issues. Following a patient's death, the clinical psychologist could be asked to intervene where other family members experience complicated or prolonged grief.
Forgetfulness and loss of concentration are early symptoms that may not be readily identified because they are considered normal signs of aging. For-getfulness and loss ofconcentration may also result from use ofdrugs or alcohol, depression, fatigue, grief, physical illness, impaired vision, or hearing loss. The symptoms of AD usually occur after sixty years of age but may occur as early as forty. Symptoms often begin with recent memory loss, confusion, poor judgment, and personality changes. In later stages ofAD, ADLs such as dressing and eating are affected. Eventually, AD sufferers are completely dependent on others for ADLs. They become so debilitated that they become bedridden, at which time other physical problems develop. Seizures may occur late in AD.
Some scholars have distinguished between the death state and the death event. The death state (what it is like to be dead) is essentially a religious or philosophical issue. It is not amenable to empirical study, although the impact of death on other people and the impact of thoughts about death while one is still alive can be studied. The death event, on the other hand, is, to some degree at least, a part of life. It is possible to study how, why, and where people die. It is possible to study the process of dying and to study grief and bereavement. about humane treatment for the dying patient, about the so-called right to die, about children and the best way to answer their concerns about death, and about how best to help people deal with their grief. Most of these questions generally cannot be answered by science alone. Almost all deal with ethical, religious, and social issues as well as with scientific information.
Finally, interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has been developed by Gerald Klerman. This successful approach emphasizes abnormal grief, interpersonal disputes, role transitions, loss, and interpersonal deficits as well as social and familial factors. Results of a large, multicenter collaborative study conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) indicated that IPT can work as well as antidepressant medication for many depressed patients. In addition, earlier research indicated that IPT can improve the social functioning of depressed patients in a manner not typically produced by antidepressant medications alone. Given the interpersonal problems which are often part of a depressive episode, these improvements in social functioning and interpersonal environment appear to be particularly important for depressed persons. In a related development, marital therapy has been tested as a treatment for depressed persons who are maritally discordant, and it appears to be successful.
Despite the negative effects, psychotropic drugs are extremely important in the provision of health care, not only for those people traditionally thought of as mentally ill but also for people with chronic pain, serious medical illness, loss and grief, and those who have experienced traumatic events.
Dealing With Sorrow
Within this audio series and guide Dealing With Sorrow you will be learning all about Hypnotherapy For Overcoming Grief, Failure And Sadness Quickly.