Abnormalities of membrane lipids


Acanthocytes, or spur cells, show prominent, somewhat regular projections on the surface, best demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. They are formed when the outer lipid layer of the membrane acquires additional lipid. Acanthocytosis is an acquired characteristic of severe liver disease, usually end stage, and the result of interaction of altered plasma lipids.


A-P-lipoproteinaemia is a rare inherited defect with absent P-apolipoprotein, which results in low serum cholesterol but increased sphingomyelin, which enters the cell membrane and produces the acanthocytes. The main clinical features are retinitis pigmentosa, fat malabsorption and hepatic encephalopathy.

McLeod phenotype

In the McLeod phenotype, acanthocytosis occurs (Figure 8.10), together with decreased expression of the Kell antigen. The defective gene is on the X chromosome, Xp21, close to genes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and retinitis pigmentosa, conditions with which the phenotype has been linked. The gene codes for the Kx protein that carries the Kell blood group protein. There may be mild anaemia.

Figure 8.10 McLeod syndrome, peripheral blood. Note the marked acanthocytosis.

How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

All Natural Immune Boosters Proven To Fight Infection, Disease And More. Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. The only common sense, no holds barred guide to hit the market today no gimmicks, no pills, just old fashioned common sense remedies to cure colds, influenza, viral infections and more.

Get My Free Audio Book

Post a comment