anaemia leads to cardiac failure and tissue hypoxia, which damages the endothelium, leading to fluid extravasation into the extravascular space.
The blood film of a fetus affected by HDN shows polychromasia and increased numbers of nucleated red cells (Figure 16.5). In most cases (except a few due to ABO antibodies), the direct antiglobulin (DAT or Coombs') test on the infant's cells is positive owing to IgG coating.
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