Industrial Waste Ebooks Catalog

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Read more...

Home Based Recycling Business Summary

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4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Michael R. Meuser
Official Website: recyclingsecrets.com
Price: $27.00

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My Home Based Recycling Business Review

Highly Recommended

This ebook comes with the great features it has and offers you a totally simple steps explaining everything in detail with a very understandable language for all those who are interested.

In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this eBook makes worth every penny of its price.

Worlds Best Compost

What you'll discover in The Worlds Best Compost e-book: The method of feeding plants in a totally natural way that results in the tastiest, most divine food you and your family will ever have. Why youll use much less water in your garden using colloidal humus compost (and how youll be saving time, money, effort and even the environment!) The secret to healthy soil through massive microbial action. (If you could see these microscopic guys at work there's more action than a Schwarzenegger movie on crack!) The shameful, sheep mentality almost all agriculture and garden advisors suffer from that costs you time and money using dangerous, toxic gardening and horticulture practices (and is murdering our planet in the process!) How to develop a soil that. Read more...

Worlds Best Compost Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Rod Turner
Official Website: www.worldsbestcompost.com

Issues Related to Solid Waste Management

Municipal Solid Waste in Landfills The issue of plastics in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream became particularly visible in the 1980s. The United States produces about 232 million tons of MSW annually (amounting to about 4.5 lb per day on a per capita basis) containing 10.7 by weight (or 25 million tons) of plastics 47 . This rate is considerably higher than that of most western countries, Canada, or Japan. Since a fraction of the waste is recycled, only about 3.5 lb per person per day is discarded in the United States according to 1994 data. Most of the plastics discarded is postconsumer packaging materials such as bags and empty containers. About 57 of the MSW was landfilled and 16 incinerated mostly in waste-to-energy plants during 1995. In the United States landfilling is likely to remain the dominant solid waste disposal strategy in the near future. Once disposed in a modern landfill, very little deterioration of the waste is expected. Even the readily biodegradable...

Polymer Recycling And Sustainability

This was especially true for household plastic packaging and resulted in a rather restrictive legal situation on collection and recycling of packaging materials. Technologies for recycling of plastic materials have been developed. Financial aspects of this ecological-driven recycling have been solved. Mechanical Recycling If you are able to collect rather clean, homogeneous plastic parts Feedstock Recycling Like pyrolysis, hydrogenation ceased meanwhile syngas production, or use in a blast furnace, if you have to deal with rather small, lightweight, contaminated mixtures that fulfill certain process specifications. The German situation for plastics production, consumption, and recycling is shown in Figure 13.10.

Polymer Recycling Statistics 1451 Plastics Recovery in the United States

In the United States, three organizations are primarily responsible for maintaining plastics recycling statistics the American Plastics Council (APC), the National Association for PET Container Resources (NAPCOR), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. APC and NAPCOR provide recycling rate data based on actual surveys of plastics recyclers. The EPA estimates recycling rates for specific commodities based on broad market data for products and an evaluation of municipal solid waste management data from the states 12 . The APC statistics are the most complete for plastic bottles 13 . Figure 14.2 shows the growth in postconsumer plastic bottle recycling from 1990 to 2000. In 2000, over 1.5 billion Growth in post-consumer plastic bottle recycling rate

Overview Of Plastics Recycling Technology 1481 Coarse Manual Sorting

In industrialized countries, cost-effective plastics recycling from postconsumer packaging or products depends on the application of sophisticated automated sorting equipment rather than piece-by-piece manual sorting that by its very nature is highly labor intensive. This is true for both bottle recycling and recycling of plastics from end-of-life durable goods such as computers and small household appliances. In the case of durables, some dismantling of end-of-life products is usually carried out in order to segregate potentially hazardous materials (e.g., lead-containing cathode ray tubes) or contaminated plastic parts (e.g., those containing very high levels of metallic paint, decorative film laminates, or labels) and to reclaim parts for remanufacture and or resale. Although according to industry sources work is underway to automate the dismantling of some relatively homogeneous streams such as TVs, dismantling largely remains a laborintensive process. During the dismantling...

Textile Waste And Recycling

According to the Secondary Materials and Recycled Textiles Association (SMART) and the Council for Textile Recycling 9, 10 , more than 1000 businesses and organizations employing many tens of thousands of workers divert some 2 million tons of textile waste from the solid waste stream. Textile waste can be classified as either preconsumer or postconsumer. Preconsumer textile waste consists of by-product materials from the textile, fiber, and cotton industries. Each year 750,000 tons of this waste is recycled into raw materials for the automotive, furniture, mattress, coarse yarn, home furnishings, paper, and other industries. Approximately 75 of the preconsumer textile waste is recycled.

Early History Of Plastics Recycling Pre1990

Four events focused attention of plastics recycling prior to 1990 (see Table 14.1). The first was the oil crisis of the early 1970s. The synthetic rubber and plastics industries largely depend on petroleum and natural gas for both their energy needs and feedstock requirements. When the price of a barrel of oil began to skyrocket in the early 1970s, efforts turned to reusing the energy content or material content of plastics as an alternative to purchasing oil from oversees markets. This stimulated a number of industry-led and government-led R&D initiatives from about 1975 until 1985 to explore technology for the recovery and recycling of scrap plastics. As one might expect, given the strong and lightweight properties of plastics, the automotive industry was the focus of much of this early R&D. It was broadly recognized that the expanded use of lightweight plastics would save gasoline through improved automobile fuel economy as well as provide additional energy and material...

Basic Plastics Recycling Definitions And Nomenclature

As in any technical field, when communicating about the technology of plastics recycling, it is important to use common terminology and definitions. Early (pre-1970) terminology for commercial, industrial, and postconsumer recycling of materials developed around the needs of the paper and textile (fiber) recycling industries and the metal and glass recycling industries. After the first oil price shock of the 1970s, plastic recycling gained attention, and it soon became apparent that the recycling definitions and nomenclature for the other commodities did not apply adequately to the collection and recycling of plastics. The problem reflected both the unique properties of plastics along with their versatility and limitations in terms of some processing technologies. Over the years, the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI, Washington, DC) has developed an extensive terminology and a list of definitions applicable to paper, textiles, glass, and metals. An authoritative source of...

Collection Of Plastics For Recycling 1471 Consumer Packaging

Since HDPE and PET bottles make up over 95 of all bottles on the market, and much of the remaining plastics packaging consists of lightweight film and foam items that are difficult to collect, clean, and sort economically 21-23 . Households are often asked to set out HDPE and PET bottles commingled with other recyclables. This is not a problem since special trucks collect the bottles and sorting equipment is available at handlers and reclaimers to make the necessary separations often at high speed. Curbside collection and drop-off centers are the principal means for collecting HDPE bottles such as natural HDPE milk jugs and water bottles and pigmented HDPE liquid detergent bottles. Many communities do not ask households to do sorting but collect all municipal solid waste together and send the mixed waste to a material recovery facility (MRF) for processing. MRFs are capable of producing separate streams of PET soft drink bottles, PET custom, natural HDPE milk jugs, and mixed color...

Basic Plastics Recycling Definitions And Nomenclature 565

Is significantly greater than that of wood or coal. Many plastics can also be thermally or chemically depolymerized into monomer(s), petrochemical feedstocks, and fuels. The end result is that several forms of plastics recycling can be defined. D5033-00 describes the following Primary recycling is the processing of scrap plastic product into a product with characteristics similar to those of the original product. Secondary recycling is the processing of scrap plastic into a product that has characteristics different from those of the original product. Tertiary recycling is the production of basic chemicals or fuels from segregated plastic scrap or plastic material that is part of a municipal waste stream or other source. Quaternary recycling is the useful retrieval of the energy content of scrap plastic by its use as a fuel to produce products such as steam, electricity, and so forth. Primary and secondary recycling are often referred to as mechanical recycling since the principal...

Types Of Plastics Packaging

Plastics packaging can be grouped into the general categories of rigid and semirigid containers, flexible packaging, and other forms. In the container category, bottles are the most common package type, but plastics are also widely used in tubs, tubes, drums, bins, trays, and other shapes. The flexible packaging category includes wraps, pouches, bags, sacks, envelopes, and similar packages. The other category includes, among others, cushioning (loose-fill and molded), blisters, caps, and lids.

Waste Recycling and Pollution Control

Reuse and recycling extends the useful life of the raw-material resources in instances where a market exists for the recycled products, and it is economical to carry out collection and reprocessing. From the standpoint of resource conservation, any form of recycling is obviously desirable and should be promoted. In practice, however, the merits of resource conservation must be weighed against the cost of fossil fuel energy used in recycling as well as the impact of waste from the process on the environment. In general, for recycling to be attractive, the energy cost of reprocessing must be relatively low compared to that of using virgin material where Evir is the energy needed to produce the plastic material starting from the naturally occurring raw-material resource, Edis is the energy cost of alternate disposal (e.g., incineration), Ecoll is the cost of collection and sorting of the plastic waste stream. As Edis and Ecoll are generally relatively smaller, the justification for...

Being Environmentally Proactive

The plastics industry must actively develop and promote strategies to extract the maximum possible useful service life from all plastics. Increasing the service life conserves raw materials as well as energy. A waste material should be viewed as an asset (a possible raw material) rather than a disposal problem, with the focus on search for processes and markets that can make a useful product out of it. Recycling should be practiced whenever the resource recovery can be achieved at substantial overall savings in fossil fuel energy with minimum pollution.

Biodegradable Plastics

When the solid waste crisis hit the United States in the 1980s, plastics were often attacked as particular problems because they are nonbiodegradable. There was a perception that biodegradation resulted in recovery of valuable landfill space. Some states even passed laws requiring that certain types of plastics (usually merchandise bags) be degradable. Since that time, there have been two important developments. First, new plastics have been developed that are truly biodegradable. Second, the use of composting for waste disposal has increased dramatically. Composting is designed to increase microbiological activity and the rate of biodegradation. In most composting operations, the process is managed to assure ample supplies of oxygen and moisture, and temperature may also be maintained at optimum levels. There are also some anaerobic composting operations designed to yield methane as a product. The output from composting is humus, which can be used as mulch or applied to fields. The...

Energy And Environmental Assessments

A study by Franklin Associates in 1992 examined the energy requirements for plastics and their alternatives in packaging materials 25 . Energy requirements for fabrication were presented for blow molding, injection molding, fabrication of film, and thermoforming and are summarized in Table 4.1. Analyses of energy requirements for resin production and for manufacture, fabrication, and recycling systems for several types of resins and container systems are shown in Table 4.2. Other studies of energy consumption for plastic packaging are also available 26, 27 .

Photodegradable Plastics As A Mitigation Strategy

The use of enhanced-photodegradable3 plastics in packaging products likely to be discarded in the marine environment has been suggested as a means of reducing the impact of marine plastic debris 89 . With products such as plastic bags or six-pack material likely to be discarded at sea or on beaches, this would allow the material to disintegrate in a relatively short time scale, minimizing their encounter with marine species. If these technologies, primarily designed to work in land environments, performed adequately in seawater as well, this approach could significantly reduce the entanglement-related hazard posed by some types of plastics waste.

Plastics Recovery in Japan

In Japan, the Plastics Waste Management Institute (PWMI) publishes plastics recovery and recycling data. Statistical data for 1999 can be found on its website www.pwmi.or.jp. It is difficult to compare this data directly with U.S. and European data due to differences in the way that preconsumer and postconsumer plastics are categorized and recorded. The total plastics waste figure given by PWMI for 1999 is 9,760,000 tons of which 4,900,000 tons is assigned to the industrial sector and 4,860,000 is assigned to general consumer waste. The overall recovery rate for general waste is reported to be 44 . Table 14.4 shows the summary data for disposal and recovery. Mechanical recycling is only 2 for general postconsumer waste but 25 for industrial plastic waste. Approximately 50 of the combined plastics are disposed of in landfills or incineration plants Table 14.4 Plastics Recovery and Recycling in Japan (1999) Table 14.4 Plastics Recovery and Recycling in Japan (1999)

Energy Recovery and Fuel Recovery

Recognizing that the broad mechanical recycling of postconsumer plastics has technical or economic limitations that are only now beginning to be overcome in specific cases, the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME) embarked on a ground-breaking series of studies beginning in the early 1990s to evaluate state-of-the-art municipal solid waste combustors for the co-combustion of packaging plastics to produce heat and electricity. Gaseous emissions and solid residues from the combustion process were evaluated and showed to be in compliance with strict German regulations. These studies have been well documented in the literature and in APME Technical Reports 111, 137-140 .

Waste Disposal Options

The thermal destruction option offers an attractive permanent disposal option for waste because of maximum volume reduction (up to 99.9 of the original waste), energy recovery (heating value of compounds in the waste is in the range of about 12-24 MJ kg or 5000-10,000 Btu lb), and by-products may be used in a variety of ways. For the case of solid waste, presorting the waste and removing metals and glass can enhance the heating value. Pyrolysis, gasification, combustion, or some combination of these processes can describe almost all types of thermal destruction processes. Chopra et al. 1 and Oppelt 2 expand on these waste disposal options. Recent texts by Brunner 6 and Niessen 5 deliberate on these incineration problems. Gasification is a thermochemical process in which the organic substances are converted into combustible gases with the aid of some agent, such as air, oxygen, carbon dioxide, steam, hydrogen, or some mixture of these gases....

Experimental Facility and Methodology

X -inch wide diametrically opposite windows, which provide the desired optical access to the test section in the reactor. In addition it has two viewing ports of 1.25 inches in diameter located near the end of the test section. The reactedness of the graphite core under reducing conditions is negligible while that under oxidative conditions is less than 1 at the conditions examined. The reactor is heated with a nominal 40-kW nontransferred arc plasma torch. The desired gas temperature and composition within the reactor is achieved by diluting the high-temperature plasma gas with some dilution gas. The dilution gases used include argon, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, air, carbon dioxide, or any mixtures of these depending on the type of environment (inert, oxidizing, or reducing) to be used. The temperature and chemical composition of gas in the test section of the reactor is therefore controlled. Particles of surrogate solid waste material are allowed to fall in the downward direction in...

National Environmental Policy

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 was signed into law on January 1, 1970. Although earlier laws focused on particular aspects of environmental protection (e.g., the Clean Air Act of 1955, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965), NEPA declares protection of the environment to be national policy. The policy goals stated in NEPA include to encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment to promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man to enrich the understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation. In the context of quantitative risk analysis for human health, it should be noted that NEPA specifically states as policy Attain the widest range of beneficial uses of the environment without degradation, risk to health or safety, or other undesirable and unintended conse-

Resource Conservation and Recovery

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), enacted in 1976, amended the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965. Major amendments to RCRA include the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984, the Federal Facilities Compli 2. Reduction in waste by treatment, reuse, and recycling material Specific provisions to accomplish these broad goals include (1) a prohibition on future open land dumping and conversion of existing open dumps to safer facilities, and (2) promulgation of guidelines for solid waste collection, transport, separation, recovery, and disposal practices and systems. RCRA recognized that effective waste management practices needed to control the generation of waste rather than just the disposal of wastes. Major regulatory mandates of RCRA address management of solid waste, management of hazardous waste, and regulation of underground storage tanks. CERCLA addresses unused and abandoned hazardous facilities, while RCRA focuses on current and proposed facilities. As a...

Waste to Energy Conversion

The energy content of the waste materials may be recovered, at least in part, by burning the waste materials in air (incineration) 3, 89-92 . Together, about 100 municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion facilities incinerated about 17 (35 million tons) of the municipal solid waste in the United States in 1996 1, 2 . Most of these facilitates have a waste-to-energy conversion process. Waste containing used paper wood products, contaminated packaging, and discarded tires has been combusted. The volume of these MSW is reduced by about 75 after incineration. The postcombustion ash still needs to be treated separately and then landfilled. Public concerns exist for the incineration of polymer waste. However, with advanced technologies and proper management, waste-to-energy conversion can be a viable alternative to landfilling. It is estimated that, if all the MSW currently generated in the United States were incinerated, the resultant carbon dioxide would be only 2 of that produced from the...

Degradation Of Plastics At

Premature gear failure, especially during use, can have financial costs that far exceed value of damage to the gear itself. It is therefore crucial that the gear in active use retains its mechanical strength while in water and during storage or intermittent exposure to sunlight on vessel decks. Ideally, faster rates of environmental degradation are desirable only when the active gear turns into plastic marine debris and leads to minimization of damage to marine life and aesthetic impacts on coastal and beach environments. Designing plastic materials that satisfy both these conflicting requirements is technically challenging. No plastic available today provides a cost-effective and reliable means of addressing this problem. An understanding of breakdown mechanisms and technologies that allow a faster degradation of plastics waste at sea are therefore of particular interest. The composition of plastics debris encountered at sea is similar to that of litter on land except for waste...

Environmental and Safety Issues on PVC

Additives used in vinyl products, particularly the phthalates used as plasticizers and the heavy metal compounds used as thermal stabilizers. Potential toxicity and the environmental consequences of phthalate released from plasticized PVC products have been debated for decades. The second concern is the potential production of dioxins and furans on the incineration of PVC in mixed municipal solid waste streams. These issues have been controversial, with numerous studies that seem to both refute and support these claims being published in the literature. The principle source of these toxic emissions is the incineration of mixed waste (including waste containing plastics) 27 , but it is not entirely clear if changing the amount of PVC waste in a waste stream would result in a corresponding change in the dioxin emissions 28 . It is generally believed that incineration at a high enough temperature in adequately designed incinerators would minimize dioxin emissions, if any, from the...

Environmental Issues Related To The Plastics Industry Global Concerns

35 San Francisco Bay Guardian, 02-28-1996, Epicenter The Plastics Inevitable, by Leighton Klein so producing plastic requires the constant extraction of oil, coal, and natural gas. Repairing anything made of plastic is nearly impossible, and the notion of recycling it is a robust fallacy at best. 1. Solid Waste Municipal solidwaste (MSW) stream grows each year. The plastics waste content of MSW is small, but it is not biodegradable. 3. Need to explore alternative solid waste disposal strategies 2. Pollution of the world's oceans due to at-sea disposal of plastic waste Local and Regional Concerns The more familiar environmental problems have to do with local or regional impacts of pollution such as the release of toxic chemicals into the environment, management of municipal solid wastes, or the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The impact of these problems is generally limited to specific geographic regions and often results in short-term consequences to a well-defined population. The...

Legislation And Regulation

As mentioned, legislation and regulation have been used in efforts to decrease the environmental impact of products or packages, particularly their impact on disposal systems, by increasing recycling and use of recycled content, as well as providing incentives for source reduction. Plastics packaging is often a target of such regulation. The most prevalent approach, globally, is implementation of the philosophy that the entity making the packaging decision should be held responsible for the management of waste packaging and should be required to meet target recycling levels. This idea is variously known as producer pays, producer responsibility or extended product (or producer) responsibility (EPR). Its first major manifestation was in Germany. Germany's Ordinance on the Avoidance of Packaging Waste requires that manufacturers and distributors take back and recycle or reuse a certain percentage of all packaging materials or participate in an established national waste management...

Carpet Waste And Composition

During carpet manufacturing, the edges of a tufted carpet need to be trimmed and the face yarns sheared. This waste is approximately 60 edge trim and 40 shear lint. In the Dalton, Georgia, region where there is a high concentration of carpet manufacturing activities, over 20,000 tons of carpet manufacturing waste is generated every year. The carpet waste from the fitting process is concentrated in the automotive and prefabricated housing industries 11, 12 . During the fitting process, the carpet is formed and cut into various irregular shapes, and waste is generated as a result. The largest amount of carpet waste, however, is from the discarded postconsumer carpet. It is estimated that about 2.3 million tons of carpet and rugs were placed in the municipal solid waste stream in 1996, of which only 1 was recovered for recycling. Carpet is a complex, multicomponent system. The tufted carpet, the most common type (90 ) as shown in Figure 16.1, typically consists of two layers of backing...

Polyurethane And Other Polymeric Foams

Polymeric foams as a class of materials is of particular interest in the present discussion not only because they are an important component of the waste stream but also because ozone depleting substances (ODS) such as Freon were once widely used as auxiliary blowing agents in their manufacture. However, in the United States and in western Europe, Freon is no longer used for the purpose and the practice is being phased out in many other parts of the world. The Montreal Protocol (along with its subsequent associated improvements) has been singularly successful in eliminating the use of major ODSs in polymeric foams and is expected to ensure the phase out of even the low-ODS agents presently allowed for the purpose, in the near future. This section reviews the chemistry of polymeric foams, the role played by Freon, and the substitutes available today for the purpose.

Magnitude Of The General Incineration Problem

The United States generates about 1.8 kg (approx. 4.0 lb) per person per day of solid waste see Chopra et al. 1 . This translates to over one billion tons of municipal solid waste generated annually. In addition to this, the United States also generates about 300 million metric tons (where 1 ton is 1000 kg) of hazardous wastes, and over the past one or two decades it has been growing at a rate of about 5-10 annually. Oppelt 2 reviews the information. Medical waste (heating value approx. 14 MJ kg or 6000 Btu lb) generated in the United States varies between 4,180 and 14,000 tons day. Hazardous wastes are produced by many industries and according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approximately 10-17 of all chemical wastes generated are hazardous. Whatever the source of information, the magnitude of the problem is very large. For example, the U.S. Navy generates about 1.5 kg (approx. 3.5 lb) per person per day of solid waste. Japan generates only about 1 kg per person per day....

Fernald Risk Assessment

Incinerator Risk Assessment

The FMPC mainly produced uranium metal at a 1000-acre site located about 15 miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. During operations, radioactive material was released from the site into the air from waste material stored in two large silos and from waste burned or buried in pits and incinerators. Increased risks of cancer in the population near the facility resulting from radioactive material releases from the FMPC were estimated by two risk assessments phase I (CDC 1998) addressed lung cancer and phase II (CDC 1999) addressed kidney cancer, female breast cancer, bone cancer, and leukemia. The phase I study estimated a median lifetime dose of 0.45 Sv (sievert), principally from inhalation of radon decay products, which was estimated to produce an excess of 85 lung cancer deaths in an exposed population of about 50,000. When some types of uncertainties are considered, the estimated doses ranged from 0.12 to 1.74 Sv, corresponding to an estimated number of excess lung cancer deaths...

And On Plastics

Making plastics, of course, uses fossil fuel resources and invariably creates emissions using plastics and especially disposing of postconsumer plastic waste has an associated environmental cost. This is by no means a phenomenon unique to plastics. It is common to all manufacturing and service industries. The cost is routinely paid globally, for instance, in using oil for transportation. Transportation is critical for the functioning of society, and the cost indeed is a reasonable and politically acceptable one. The question then is Do the benefits provided by the use of plastics justify the environmental costs associated with their use of the environments in which they are typically used, such as outdoors, in biotic environments, or in fires. The final section consists of chapters on recycling and thermal treatment of plastics waste.

Source Reduction

Substantial amounts of source reduction can often be gained by switching from glass or metal to plastics packaging and by switching from rigid or semirigid packaging to flexible packaging (usually containing plastic). While such reduction is usually measured in terms of weight, there is typically a reduction in the volume of packaging material used as well.

Yarn Formation

In the case of spun yarns, there are basically two types of waste to be considered. The first is solid waste, primarily reworkable and nonreworkable soft fiber waste, hard waste, and packaging materials (e.g., bale wrap and straps, cones, yarn cases). The second is spinning additives, which are later removed and become waste from subsequent processes. These include tints, antistatic agents, and lubricants.

Justification

Plastics have come under attack in recent years due to their high visibility in the solid waste crisis. Nondegradable plastics packaging is blamed for shortening the life expectancy of commercial landfills, increasing the operational cost, contaminating the environment, and posing a threat to animal and marine life. Plastics account for approximately 15-17 of the 19 billion food-packaging market, and it is predicted to increase to 50 by the year 2000 2 . Nearly 10 of the plastics used in packaging are used as coatings on other materials, including paper 2 . Increasing legislative and economic imperatives and public perception of paper being. natural and plastics being foreign have led to the explosive drive to recycle plastics packaging or to make it biodegradable. The number of landfills, used for the disposal of solid waste, in the United States has decreased from 18,500 in 1979 to 6000 in 1988 2 . A recent study of marine pollution commissioned by the Environmental Protection...

Endof Life Vehicles

End-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are not categorized as part of municipal solid waste by the EPA 12 . A separate recycling infrastructure has developed for ELVs. This recycling infrastructure is highly efficient, and in the United States close to 95 of all ELVs are recycled for scrap metal. Recycling rates are also high in Europe and Japan. However, many older cars are exported from the European Union countries to the eastern part of Europe for reuse, and Japan exports many older cars to Asia. Since the recycling of ELVs is profitable today, ELVs are collected by recyclers either for highly valuable used parts or for their scrap metal value. Each year over 10 million ELVs are collected for recycling in North America. Information on the collection and dismantling of scrap vehicles for used parts can be obtained from the Automobile Recyclers Association (Fairfax, VA), www.autorecyc.org. Once processed for resalable parts, ELV hulks are sent to shredders where giant hammer mills tear the cars...

Looking Ahead

Plastics are inherently strong, lightweight, durable, versatile, and resource-efficient materials with significant life-cycle environmental benefits. Polymer-based products will continue to provide unique technical solutions in virtually all markets 154, 155 . Although many challenges to the cost-effective and environmentally sound recovery and recycling of polymers remain, significant advances in science and technology have been made over the past decade, major technical and regulatory barriers have been addressed, and the future for increased recovery of polymers, especially plastic packaging and engineering plastics looks extremely promising. Integrated resource management across industries will play an important role combining mechanical recycling, feedstock chemical recycling, and fuel energy recovery. Although the mix of resource management options will likely vary by region, postuse plastics recovery will provide material and energy resources of increasing importance to...

The Problem

Without recycling options for automotive plastics and proper disposal of industrial, commercial, and residential wastes, the old practice of landfilling will see an increasing amount of materials that could otherwise be put to use. A reduction in the number of municipal landfills is escalating technology development in waste recycling and waste treatment. Improper disposal of household wastes, runoff of lawn and garden chemicals, and misuse and improper disposal of chemicals by businesses and institutions are important contributions to non-point-source discharges in many states. Some of the waste generated may also be hazardous. The users and disposers in many situations are unaware of the environmental and economic benefits to be derived from source reduction activities. Although many communities in the United States sponsor periodic waste collection programs and a few have permanent collection stations, only a small portion of the population is served in this way. The high costs of...

Preamble

Experimental and numerical studies presented here are on the thermal destruction behavior of cellulose and surrogate solid waste. An experimental study was conducted in a controlled mixing history reactor (CMHR) using plasma gas as the heating device 21 . The effect of pyrolysis temperature, waste properties, residence time, and gaseous environment surrounding the waste has been examined. Gas generation rate, chemical composition, and heating value of evolved gases as well as the solid residue remaining after exposing the waste to prescribed environment during pyrolysis have also been examined. Equilibrium thermochemical calculations were carried out using STANJAN and SOLGASMIX computer codes to provide information on the thermal destruction behavior of samples of surrogate solid waste and its excursions at different temperatures. Calculated results show good trends with the experimental data and can therefore be used as a guideline to describe the experimentally observed results on...

Iiiiiiiiii

Particle size and density are two important factors that affect pyrolysis since they determine the particle velocity and residence time in the CMHR. The effect of particle size and density was studied here using flow visualization. The flow visualization tests were performed on cellulose and surrogate solid waste particles as they travel downstream in the reaction zone of the CMHR. These tests provided the direct effect of temperature on residence time of particles in the reactor. Particle imaging was performed in the reactor with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera and frame grabber using Global Lab Image software and a computer. Particle images were taken under both nonburning and burning conditions. The flow inside the reactor was laminar. Near single particles were introduced into the furnace so that the equivalence ratio was low (fuel-lean). Sample images are shown in Figure 15.4. These images allow one to analyze the evolutionary behavior of solid particles, both temporally and...

Closure

Results of equilibrium thermochemical calculations for the thermal destruction of nonplastic and plastic materials show the effect of material composition on the flame temperature, particulate emission, metals, dioxins, and product gas composition. The effect of waste composition has greater influence on adiabatic flame temperature, combustion air requirement, and the evolution of products and intermediate species. The combustion of waste in air produces higher flame temperature for 100 plastic than for nonplastic and mixtures. The 100 plastic requires lower number of moles of oxidant than 100 nonplastic and mixtures. Plastic produces HCl and H2S with concentration levels ranging from 1000 to 10,000 ppm. Emission of NO and NO2 from 100 nonplastic showed an increase with increase in moles of air while that from 100 plastic a slight decrease with increase in moles of air. The higher theoretical flame temperatures predicted with plastic waste corresponds to lower waste feed rate...

Major Organ Systems

Choledocholithiasis Risk Factors

10.2.3.1 Digestive and Urinary Systems The digestive and urinary systems process food for energy and eliminate waste products. These two systems are of particular significance for environmental toxicology in their role as portals for the entry and exit of environmental contaminants to and from the body. The digestive system is one of the primary routes by which environmental contaminants are taken into the body and transformed chemically, and it is the main route by which insoluble waste materials are excreted. The urinary system plays a key role in the filtration and elimination of soluble toxic substances and is a primary route by which soluble waste products and excess water are eliminated. A simplified representation of the routes through which environmental contaminants can enter and leave the body through the digestive and urinary systems is provided in Figure 10.2, which is the basis for a mathematical model used for estimating the effects of ingested radioactive materials. Use...

E 10 100e 12 100e

The initial composition of waste material has a significant effect on the thermal destruction process. The removal of some constituents from the waste results in different products of pyrolysis as well as thermal and chemical characteristics. The results shown in Figures 15.9 and 15.10 show that the presence of paper in the waste provides a major role in both the gas yield and gas heating value from the pyrolysis of surrogate solid wastes. Removal of paper from the solid waste

Example

An industrial plant discharges waste into a river at a flow rate of 0.5 m3 s. Upstream from the waste discharge, the volumetric flow rate of the river is 10 m3 s. The principal contaminant in the waste stream is arsenic at a concentration of 100 g L. Arsenic is present in the watershed, and the arsenic concentration upstream from the waste discharge is 1.5 g L. If the waste stream becomes completely mixed with the river water, what is the concentration of arsenic in the river downstream from the waste discharge A conservative calculation of the downstream concentration can be made by neglecting the contribution of the waste stream to the water flow rate downstream and approximating the downstream flow rate as being equal to the upstream flow rate. The resulting estimate of the downstream concentration is 6.5 g L.

Materials Crisis

Even with energy expenditures stringently controlled, or an abundant clean source of energy developed, the prospects of achieving sustainability in the long term is seriously threatened by the rapid depletion of essential material and mineral resources. The manufacturing of goods invariably involve using concentrated pools of naturally occurring raw material resources leading to their eventual dissipation in the environment. For instance, the manufacture of plastics uses up a fraction of the crude oil reserves or natural gas that is invariably dissipated as postconsumer plastic waste in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream or as gaseous incineration products in the atmosphere. Clearly, this unidirectional materials flow is viable only as long as the intact reserves are available. All estimates published for the global reserves of these nonfuel resources, of course, are increased frequently as new discoveries of reserves are made (as with the oil). The quantitative information is...

Finishing

Waste from finishing operations are comprised of the substances shown in Table 7.31. The volume of waste from finishing is quite low compared to preparation, dyeing, and printing. Solid waste in the form of rags, scraps, and selvage trimmings are generally collected and sold to fiber recyclers. Selvage trimmings are salable as raw materials for recyclers and also for braided rugs or other craft activities. Water pollution from finishing can be reduced by careful attention to accurate calculation and make up of mixes to minimize discards 64 and proper work practices in handling chemicals, in particular, drum washing and bulk systems including delivery tanker trucks.

Trash To Cash

Trash To Cash

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