A Vertebra

2 VERTEBRAL CANAL. Canalis vertebralis. Canal formed by the successive vertebral foramina. It contains the spinal cord. B

3 Body of vertebra. Corpus vertebrae (vertebrale). BCD

3 a Facies intervertebrals. The surface of a vertebra facing the adjacent vertebra. B

3 b Ring apophysis (epiphysis). Apophysis anu-

laris. Ring of bone around the upper and lower surfaces of the vertebral body. It represents a secondary center of ossification. B

4 Vertebral arch. Arcus vertebrae (vertebralis). It forms the posterior and lateral boundaries of the vertebral foramen. C D

5 Pedicle. Pediculus arcus vertebrae. The portion of the vertebral arch situated anteriorly between the body and transverse process as well as between the superior and inferior vertebral notches. B D

6 Lamina. Lamina arcus vertebrae (vertebralis). The portion ofthe vertebral arch situated posteriorly between the transverse process and the spinous process. C

6a Neurocentral junction (synchondrosis). Junc-tio neurocentralis. Cartilaginous joint between the left and right fetal neural arches and the centrum. E

7 Intervertebral foramen. Foramen intervertebrale. Opening for the passage of the spinal nerve and small vessels. It is bordered by the two adjacent vertebral notches, the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc. A B

8 Superior vertebral notch. Incisura vertebralis superior. Notch on the superior aspect of the pedicle. B

9 Inferior vertebral notch. Incisura vertebralis inferior. Notch on the inferior aspect of the pedicle. B

10 Vertebral foramen. Foramen vertebrale. Space surrounded by the vertebral arch and body. Together, the series of foramina form the vertebral canal. C D

11 Spinous process. Processus spinosus. It is bifid in the upper four cervical vertebrae. B C D

12 Transverse process. Processus transversus. B C

13 Costal process. Processus costalis. The transverse process of a lumbar vertebra. It corresponds to a rudimentary rib formed by the embryonic costal element. D

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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