B White communicating ramus Ramus albus

Preganglionic part. A

12 Meningeal branch. Ramus meningeus. Delicate, recurrent ramus. It passes in front of the spinal nerve to re-enter the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramen and supply the meninges of the spinal cord, where it unites with other meningeal rami to form a plexus. It contains sensory and sympathetic fibers. A

13 Cauda equina. Collection of all spinal nerve roots extending from L1-2 caudally in addition to the filum terminale. C

14 CERVICAL NERVES. Nervi cervicales. Eight spinal nerves emerging from the cervical spinal cord. B

15 Posterior (dorsal) branches. Rami posteriores. Posterior branches of the spinal nerve that supply the nuchal muscles and the skin lateral to the nuchal region and near the occiput. A

16 Medial branch of posterior ramus. Ramus medialis. Branch with motor and sensory fibers supplying the muscles and skin. A

17 Lateral branch of posterior ramus. Ramus lateralis. Purely motor branch passing obliquely laterad into the muscles. A

18 Suboccipital nerve. N. suboccipitalis. Posterior branch of the first cervical spinal nerve. It exits between the vertebral artery and posterior arch of the atlas and supplies the short muscles of the neck. D

19 Greater occipital nerve. N. occipitalis major. Posterior branch of the second cervical spinal nerve. It emerges between the axis and ob-liquus capitis inferior muscle, pierces the trapezius and supplies the nuchal muscles and skin of the occipital region. D

20 Third occipital nerve. N. occipitalis tertius. Posterior branch of the third cervical spinal nerve. It supplies the skin of the nuchal region close to the midline. D

21 Anterior (ventral) branches. Rami anteriores. Anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves. They form the cervical and brachial plexuses. A

22 Cervical plexus. Plexus cervicalis. Nerve plexus formed by the anterior rami of spinal nerves C1-4. They supply the skin and muscles of the neck.

23 Nerve loop from C1-3. Ansa cervicalis [hypo-glossi]. A nerve loop in the neck (C1-C3) that supplies the infrahyoid muscles. B

24 Anterior (ventral) root. Radix anterior. The anterior root, part of which supplies the genio-hyoid and thyrohyoid muscles via the hypoglossal nerve. B

25 Posterior (dorsal) root. Radix posterior. Posterior root. B

26 Thyrohyoid branch of the ansa cervicalis. Ramus thyrohyoideus. Branch supplying the thyrohyoid muscle. B

27 Lesser occipital nerve. N. occipitalis minor. Uppermost cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus. It passes upward at the posterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid and, at the occiput, ramifies as a lateral communicating nerve of the greater occipital nerve. D

28 Great auricular nerve. N. auricularis magnus. It courses to the ear, thereby crossing the sterno-cleidomastoid vertically somewhat above its middle. D

29 Posterior (dorsal) branch. Ramus posterior. It supplies the skin of the posterior surface of the pinna and the adjacent area. D

30 Anterior (ventral) ramus. Ramus anterior. It supplies the skin of the anterior surface of the ear up to the angle of the mandible. D

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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