Feneis Pocket Atlas of Human Anatomy 2000 Thieme

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13 M. longissimus cervicis. o: Transverse processes T1-6. i: Transverse processes of vertebrae C2-7. It lies between the iliocostalis cervicis and longissimus capitis muscles. C

14 M. longissimus capitis. o: Transverse processes of vertebrae C3-T3. i: Mastoid process. It lies between the longissimus cervi-cis and semispinalis capitis muscles. A: Lateral and backward flexion of the head. It rotates the face toward the ipsilateral side. C

15 M. iliocostalis. Iliocostal muscle, which consists of the following three segments.

16 M. iliocostalis lumborum. o: Iliac crest. i: Angle of ribs 5-12. A: Extenson and lateral flexion of lower vertebral column. B C

17 M. iliocostalis thoracis. o: Medial sides of 6 lower rib angles. i: Six uppermost rib angles. A: Flattening of thoracic kyphosis, lateral flexion. B C

18 M. iliocostals cervicis. o: Upper and middle ribs. i: Transverse processes of middle cervical vertebrae. C

19 M. splenius cervicis. o: Spinous processes of T3-5. i: Posterior tubercle of transverse processes of C1-2. A: Backward flexion and rotation of head. B

20 M. splenius capitis. o: Spinous processes of C4-T3. i: External half of superior nuchal line and mastoid process. A: Backward flexion and rotation of head. A B

21 MM. INTERTRANSVERSARII. Muscular connection of adjacent transverse processes. A: Lateral flexion. See p. 77 C D E

22 Mm. intertransversarii laterales lumborum. Muscles between adjacent costal processes. I: Ventral rami of spinal nerves. See p. 77 C

23 Mm. intertransversarii mediales lumborum. Muscles between the mamillary processes. See p. 77 C

24 Mm. intertransversarii thoracis. Usually absent. See p. 77 C

25 Mm. intertransversarii posteriores cervicis.

Muscles between posterior tubercles of transverse processes of cervical vertebrae. See p. 77

26 Pars medialis. Medial part of 25.

27 Pars lateralis. Lateral part of 25. I: Ventral ramus of spinal nerves.

28 Mm. intertransversarii anteriores cervicis. Muscles connecting the anterior tubercles of the cervical transverse processes. I: Ventral ramus of spinal nerves. See p. 77 E

Spinal Muscle Fascia

20 Thoracolumbar fascia. Fascia thoracolumbar. Encasing fascia of the erector spinae muscle. It is attached to the spinous processes with a superficial layer, to the costal processes with a deep layer, both layers being united laterally. Associated muscles: transversus abdominis, serrati posteriores, latissimus dorsi and, in some cases, the internal oblique muscle of the abdomen. F

21 Nuchal fascia. Fascia nuchae (nuchalis). Dorsal continuation of the superficial layer of the cervical fascia. (Investing fascia of the true neck musculature.)

22 HEAD MUSCLES. Musculi capitis.

23 MM. SUBOCCIPITALES. The following seven muscles:

24 M. rectus capitis anterior. o: Lateral mass of the atlas. i: Basilar part of occipital bone. A: Forward flexion of head. I: Anterior rami of spinal nerves. E

25 M. rectus capitis posterior major. o: Spinous process of axis. i: Middle of inferior nuchal line. A: Outward rotation and dorsiflexion of head. I: Suboccipital nerve. D. See also p. 79 A

26 M. rectus capitis posterior minor. o: Posterior tubercle of atlas. i: Inner third of inferior nuchal line. A: Mainly dorsiflexion of head. I: Suboccipital nerve. D. See also p. 79 A

2 M. spinalis. Muscular system attached to the spinous processes and consisting of the following three segments: See p. 75 B

3 M. spinalis thoracis. o: Transverse processes of T11-L2. i: Spinous processes of T2-11. A: Back flexion. See p. 75 C

4 M. spinalis cervicis. o: Transverse processes of C6-T2. i: Spinous processes of C2-4. A: Back flexion. See p. 75 C

5 M. spinalis capitis. Inconstant part of semispi-nalis capitis with additional origins from the upper thoracic and lower cervical spinous processes.

6 MM. INTERSPINALES. Unlike the spinal muscles, these muscles extend only between the spinous processes of continuous vertebrae. A: Dorsiflexion. C D

7 Mm. interspinales cervicis. These are paired because of the bifid cervical spinous processes. D

8 Mm. interspinales thoracis. Usually absent. C

9 Mm. interspinales lumborum. Especially strong muscle bands. C

10 MM. TRANSVERSOSPINALES. Collective term for the following nine muscles. A B C

11 M. semispinalis. The longest superficial portion of the transversospinales. It spans four or more vertebrae and comprises the following three segments: A B

12 M. semispinalis thoracis. o: Transverse processes of T7-I2. i: Spinous processes of C6-T6. A: Primarily dorsiflexion. A

13 M. semispinalis cervicis. o: Transverse processes of T1-6. i: Spinous processes of C2-5. A: Mainly dorsiflexion. A

14 M. semispinalis capitis. o: Transverse processes of C4-T6. i: Occipital bone between superior and inferior nuchal lines. A: Dorsiflex-ion of head and rotation, depending on starting position. A

15 Mm. multifidi. Portion of the transversospinal system spanning 2-4 vertebrae. A: Dor-solateral flexion and slight rotation. B

16 Mm. rotatores. Deepest layer of the transver-sospinal system with short fibers taking an especially transverse course, thereby providing stronger rotation. They attach to an adjacent or superior vertebra. A B C

17 Mm. rotatores cervicis. o: Inferior articular process. i: Arch or root of spinous process of cervical vertebrae. A

18 Mm. rotatores thoracis. o: Transverse process of thoracic vertebrae. i: Spinous process. A C

19 Mm. rotatores lumborum. o: Mamillary process. i: Roots of spinous process of lumbar vertebrae. A C

1 M. rectus capitis lateralis. o: Transverse process of atlas. i: Jugular process of occipital bone. A: Lateral flexion of head. I: Anterior rami of spinal nerves C1-2. A B, see also p. 77 E

2 M. obliquus capitis superior. o: Transverse process of atlas. i: Field above attachment of rectus capitis posterior major. A: Backward and lateral flexion of head. I: Posterior rami of spinal nerves C1-2. A, see also p. 77 D

3 M. obliquus inferior. o: Spinous process of axis. i: Transverse process of atlas. A: Lateral rotation of atlas and face toward the same side. I: Posterior rami of spinal nerves C1-2. A, see also p. 77 D

4 M. longus capitis. o: Anterior tubercle of transverse processes of C3-6. i: Basal part of occipital bone. A: Forward and lateral flexion of head and cervical vertebral column. I: Anterior rami of spinal nerves C1-2. B

5 FACIAL AND MASTICATORY MUSCLES. Musculi faciales et masticatorii.

6 M. epicranius. Collective term for the muscles attaching to the galea aponeurotica. I: Facial nerve. C

7 M. occipitofrontalis. Muscle extending anteriorly and posteriorly into the galea aponeurotica. C

8 Frontal belly. Venter frontalis. The portion of the occipitofrontalis which passes from the galea aponeurotica to the eyebrows. A: Moves scalp forward and raises the eyebrows. C

9 Occipital belly. Venter occipitalis. The portion of the occipitofrontalis which passes from the supreme nuchal line to the galea aponeurotica. A: Moves galea aponeurotica backward. C

10 M. temporoparietalis. o. Region of superior auricular muscle. i: Galea aponeurotica. C

11 Galea aponeurotica (aponeurosis epicrania-lis). Displaceable, helmet-like, superficial tendon for the two parts of the epicranius. It lies against the periosteum and is attached to the supreme nuchal line and to the external occipital protuberance. C

12 M. procerus. o: Dorsum of nose. i: Skin above the nose. A: Depression of frontal skin. I: Facial nerve. C

13 M. nasalis. Common term for the following two nasal muscles: I: Facial nerve. D

14 Transverse part of nasalis. Pars transversa [[compressor naris]]. o: Field over root of canine tooth. i: Superficial tendon on dorsum of nose. D

15 Alar part of nasalis. Pars alaris [[dilatator naris]]. o: Above the lateral incisor tooth. i: Margins of the nasal openings and the adjacent region. D

16 M. depressor septi. o: Above the medial incisor tooth. i: Cartilaginous nasal septum. A: Depresses tip of nose. I: Facial nerve. D

17 M. orbicularis oculi. Circular sphincter muscle of the eye. Comprises three segments. It closes the eyelids and assists the flow of tears into the lacrimal sac and into the nose. i: Facial nerve. C D

18 Palpebral part. Pars palpebralis. Fibers situated in the eyelids passing from the medial palpebral ligament and the adjacent bones to the lateral palpebral ligament. C

19 Orbital part. Pars orbitalis. Arises from the medial palpebral ligament and adjacent bones, thus encircling the eye. C

20 Lacrimal part. Pars lacrimalis. o: Posterior lacrimal crest. It curves around the lacrimal canaliculus, extends partially behind the lacrimal sac and radiates into the palpebral part of the orbicularis oculi muscle below the medial palpebral ligament. D

21 M. corrugator supercilii. o: Nasal part of frontal bone. i: Skin over the middle of the eyebrow. Located below the orbicularis oculi muscle. I: Facial nerve. D

22 M. depressor supercilii. Muscle medial to the corrugator supercilii that radiates from the orbicular oculi into the skin of the medial part of the eyebrow. I: Facial nerve. D

23 M. auricularis anterior. Muscle in front of the ear. o: Temporal fascia. i: Spine ofhelix. I: Facial nerve. C

24 M. auricularis superior. o: Galea aponeurotica. i: Root of pinna. I: Facial nerve. C

25 M. auricularis posterior. o: Mastoid process. i: Root of pinna. I: Facial nerve. C

26 M. orbicularis oris. Encircles the mouth opening and consists of two parts (see nos.27,28). It assists in closing the lips and helps to empty the vestibule of the mouth. I: Facial nerve. C D E

27 Marginal part. Pars marginalis.The peripheral margin radiating into the neighboring muscles. D

28 Labial part. Pars labialis. The main part of the orbicularis oris including the portion which takes a hook-like bend externally below the red portion of the lips. C D E

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