19 M. levator veli palatini. o: Petrous portion of temporal bone in front of the lower opening of the carotid canal. i: Palatine aponeurosis. It passes through the pharyngeal wall above the superior constrictor muscle and moves the soft palate backward and upward, thereby taking along the dorsomedial part of the auditory tube cartilage below the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube. I: Vagus (X) nerve. C
20 M. tensor veli palatini. o: Spine of sphenoid, scaphoid fossa and anterior (lateral) lip of cartilaginous auditory tube. i: After looping around the pterygoid hamulus, it radiates into the palatine aponeurosis, stiffens the anterior (lateral) membranous wall of the auditory tube and tenses the soft palate. I: Mandibular nerve. C
21 M. uvulae. o: Palatine aponeurosis. i: Connective tissue of uvulae. I: Vagus nerve. C
22 M. palatoglossus. o: Transversus linguae muscle. i: Palatine aponeurosis. A: Elevates the base of the tongue, depresses the palate and narrows the isthmus of fauces. I: Vagus nerve. D
23 M. palatopharyngeus [[m. pharyngopalat-inus]]. o: Palatine aponeurosis, pterygoid hamulus and medial plate of pterygoid process. i: Lateral wall of pharynx and thyroid cartilage. A: It lowers the palate and constricts the isthmus of fauces. I: Vagus nerve. D
24 PHARYNGEAL CAVITY. Cavitas pharyngis. Space enclosed by the pharyngeal walls.
25 Pharyngeal fornix. Fornix pharyngis. Roof of the pharyngeal cavity beneath the sphenoid bone. E
26 Nasopharynx. Pars nasalis pharyngis. The portion of the pharyngeal cavity located behind the choanae. E
27 Nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoids). Tonsilla pharyngealis (adenoidea). It lies at the pharyn-geal fornix. E
28 Tonsillar pits. Fossulae tonsillares. Openings of crypts visible on surface of tonsil. See also p. 116.10. B
29 Tonsillar crypts. Cryptae tonsillares. Epithelial invaginations emanating from the tonsillar pits. See also p. 116.11. B
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.