18 Esophageal branches. Rami oesophageales. A B
20 Ascending cervical artery. A.cervicalisascen-dens. It lies medial to the phrenic nerve and the scalenus anterior and can reach as far as the base ofthe skull. A B
21 Spinal branches. Rami spinales. They pass through the intervertebral foramina to the spinal cord. A B
22 Transverse cervical (colli) artery. A. transversa cervicis (colli). The vessel may vary greatly. The second most frequent variant (25%) is represented here. Originating usually (75%) from the subclavian artery, it frequently passes through the brachial plexus, supplies the upper part of the trapezius with its branches and ramifies alongside the dorsal scapular nerve. A B
23 Superficial branch. Ramus superficialis. It arises either as a superficial ramus from the transverse cervical artery or as an independent superficial cervical artery from the thyrocervical trunk and passes beside the accessory nerve to the descending part of the trapezius and the levator scapulae and splenius muscles. A B
23 a Ascending branch. Ramus ascendens.
23 b Descending branch. Ramus descendens.
24 Deep branch (dorsal scapular artery).
Ramus profundus (a. dorsalis scapulae). This vessel arises either as a deep branch ofthe transverse cervical artery or directly from the sub-clavian artery (67%) and accompanies the dorsal scapular nerve. It supplies the medial border of the scapula and adjacent muscles. AB
24a Dorsal scapular artery. [A. dorsalis scapulae]. Old designation for the deep branch.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.