11 Atlas (C1). First cervical vertebra. It lacks a body. A

2 Lateral mass of atlas. Massa lateralis atlantis. The thickened lateral part of the atlas which bears the skull for the lacking vertebra. A

3 Superior articular facet. Facies articularis superior. Elliptical and concave facet. A

4 Inferior articular facet. Facies articularis inferior. Roundish and slightly concave surface lined with cartilage.

5 Anterior arch of atlas. Arcus anterior atlantis. A

6 Dental fovea of atlas. Fovea dentis atlantis. Facet for articulation with the dens of the axis on the inner surface of the anterior arch. A

7 Anterior tubercle of atlas. Tuberculum an-terius atlantis. A

8 Posterior arch of atlas. Arcus posterior atlantis. A

9 Groove for vertebral artery. Sulcus arteriae vertebralis. Groove for the vertebral artery located on the posterior arch of the atlas behind the articular surfaces. A

10 Posterior tubercle. Tuberculum posterius. It is a rudiment of the spinous process. A

11 Axis (C2) [[Epistropheus] The second cervical vertebra. B

12 Dens [[odontoid process] of axis. Dens axis. B

13 Apex of dens. Apex dentis. Attachment site of the apical ligament of the dens. B

14 Anterior articular surface of dens. Facies ar-ticularis anterior. B

15 Posterior articular surface of dens. Faciesar-ticularis posterior. B

16 OS SACRUM (SACRALE) / VERTEBRAE SACRALES I-V. Sacral bone [[ sacrum]] formed by five fused vertebrae. C D F

17 Base of sacrum. Basis ossis sacri. Broad upper end of sacrum. F

18 Promontory of sacrum. Promontorium ossis sacri. Prominent anterior margin of the body of the first sacral vertebra. It projects quite far into the pelvic inlet. F

19 Ala of sacrum. Ala sacralis. Part of the base of the sacrum situated lateral to the first sacral vertebra.

20 Superior articular process. Processus articu-laris superior. C F

21 Lateral part or mass of sacrum. Pars lateralis ossis sacri. The lateral part of the sacrum derived from the transverse processes and rudimentary ribs. C F

22 Auricular surface. Facies auricularis. Ear-shaped articular surface for the ilium. C

23 Sacral tuberosity. Tuberositas sacralis. Rough area behind the auricular surface for the attachment of the sacroiliac ligaments. C

24 Pelvic surface. Facies pelvica. Anterior surface of the sacrum facing the pelvis. F

25 Transverse lines. Lineae transversae. Four anteriorly situated fusion lines ofthe five sacral vertebral bodies. F

26 Intervertebral foramina. Foramina inter-vertebralia. Openings for passage of the sacral spinal nerves. They develop from the original superior and inferior notches. D

27 Anterior sacral foramina. Foramina sacralia anteriora (pelvica). Anterior openings for nerves and vessels. D F

28 Dorsal surface of sacrum. Facies dorsalis ossis sacri. C

29 Median sacral crest. Crista sacralis mediana. Median ridge formed by the remnants of the spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae. C

30 Posterior sacral foramina. Foramina sacralia posteriora. Posterior openings for nerves and vessels. C D

31 Intermediate sacral crests. Cristae sacralis intermedia. Remnants of the articular processes located on either side the median sacral crest. C

32 Lateral sacral crest. Crista sacralis lateralis. Posterior bilateral series of rudimentary transverse processes. C

33 Sacral cornu (horn). Cornu sacrale. Hook-shaped processes that extend downward on either side of the sacral hiatus. C

34 Sacral canal. Canalis sacralis. Inferior end of the vertebral canal. C D

35 Sacral hiatus. Hiatus sacralis. Opening at the inferior end ofthe vertebral canal located usually atthe level of vertebrae S3-4. Emergence site of filum terminale and injection site for lower epidural anesthesia (caudal analgesia). C

36 Apex of sacrum. Apex ossis sacri. Inferior tip of sacrum which gives attachment to the coccyx. C F

37 COCCYGEAL VERTEBRAE I-IV. Os coccygis. Bone that usually consists of four rudimentary vertebrae. E

38 Coccygeal cornu (horn). Cornu coccygeus. Upwardly projecting process formed by the articular process. E

¬°¬°THORAX]] Used to denote the chest and wall consisting of ribs, cartilage and soft tissue that encases the chest cavity. THORACIC BONES. Ossa thoracis, RIBS. Costae (I-XII). D

True ribs (1-7). Costae verae (I-VII). The first seven ribs with individual cartilaginous connections to the sternum thereby distinguishing them from the last five ribs. D False ribs (8-12). Costae spuriae (VIII-XII). The last five ribs which have no direct cartilaginous union with the sternum. D Floating ribs (11-12). Costae fluitantes (XI-XII). They have no connection with the costal arch (arch of ribs). D

Costal cartilage. Cartilago costalis. Cartilage at the anterior ends of the ribs. D Bony rib. Os costale (costa). It is contrasted with the cartilaginous segment of the rib. D Head of rib. Caput costae. It articulates with the vertebral column. A Articular surface on head of rib. Facies articulares capitis costae. A B Interarticular crest on head of rib. Crista capitis costae. Small ridge which separates the two articular facets. B

Neck of rib. Collum costae. It lies lateral to the head of the rib. A B

Crest of neck of rib. Crista colli costae. Sharp ridge on the upper border of the neck of a rib. A Shaft (body) of rib. Corpus costae. Main part of rib adjacent to the neck. A B Costal tubercle. Tuberculum costae. Posterior elevation between the neck and the shaft of the rib. A B

Articular facet of costal tubercle. Facies articu-laris tuberculi costae. Surface for articulation with the transverse process of the thoracic vertebrae. A B

Angle of rib. Angulus costae. Posteriorly situated bend in the axis of the rib. A B

Costal groove. Sulcus costae. Groove for the intercostal artery, vein and nerve on the lower margin of the internal surface of the rib. B 17 a First rib. Costa prima. It is the only rib bent only along the edge. A D

Tubercle for anterior scalene muscle. Tuberculum musculi scaleni anterioris. Small prominence on the upper surface of the first rib for the attachment of the anterior scalene muscle. A Groove for subclavian artery. Sulcus arteriae subclaviae. Groove on the first rib, just posterior to the anterior scalene tubercle. A Groove for subclavian vein. Sulcus venae sub-claviae. Groove on the first rib, just anterior to the anterior scalene tubercle. A 20 a Second rib. Costa secunda. It attaches to the sternal angle and can easily be identified in

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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