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1 Knee joint. Articulatiogenus[genualis].ABCDE

2 Lateral meniscus. Meniscus lateralis. Roughly circular ring, the superficial layer of which is made of fibrocartilage, whereas the deep layer is more tendinous. It is located below the lateral femoral condyle and has close-set bases. It is relatively mobile because it is not fused with the lateral collateral ligament. B D E

3 Anterior meniscofemoral ligament. Lig. meniscofemorale anterius. Fibrous band oc-casionallyfoundconnectingtheposteriorpartof the lateral meniscus with the anterior cruciate ligament. It passes in front of the posterior cruciate ligament. D E

4 Posterior meniscofemoral ligament. Lig. meniscofemorale posterius. It passes posterior to the lateral meniscus to the fibular surface of the medial femoral condyle behind the posterior cruciate ligament. D E

5 Medial meniscus. Meniscus medialis. A crescent-shaped ring segment located below the medial femoral condyle. It is not very mobile because it is fused with the medial collateral ligament. Its histological structure is like thatofthe lateral meniscus. B D E

6 Transverse ligament of knee. Lig. transversum genus [genuale]. Transverse ligament joining the anterior ends of the lateral and medial menisci. B D

7 Cruciate ligaments of knee. Ligg. cruciata genus[geniualia].Theypreventdisplacementof the tibia and femur in the sagittal plane. B E

8 Anterior cruciate ligament. Lig. cruciatum an-terius. It passes from the inner surface of the lateral femoral condyle obliquely forward and inferomedially to the anterior intercondylar area. It prevents inward rotation and forward displacement ofthe tibia toward the femur. BD E

9 Posterior cruciate ligament. Lig. cruciatum posterius. It passes from the inner surface of the medial femoral condyle to the posterior condy-lararea,stabilizesthejointwhenflexed,andpre-vents backward displacement of the tibia away from the femur. B D E

10 Infrapatellar synovial fold. Plica synovialis in-frapatellaris. Connective tissue that often contains fat. It extends from the infrapatellar adipose body to the intercondylar fossa. B

11 Alar folds. Plicae alares. Deformable, paired bulges ofthe adipose body that fill empty spaces in the anterior part of the joint cavity. B

12 Fibular collateral ligament. Lig. collaterale fibulare. Lateral collateral ligament that extends from the lateral epicondyle to the head of the fibula independent ofthe capsule and meniscus. ABCD E

13 Tibial collateral ligament. Lig. collaterale tibiale. Medial collateral ligament extending from the medial epicondyle to the tibia. It is fused with the joint capsule and the meniscus. A B C D E

14 Oblique popliteal ligament. Lig. popliteum ob-liquum.Fibrousbandoriginatingintheposterior wall of the capsule, extending upward and outward from the tendon of the semimembranous muscle, thereby reinforcing the capsule. C

15 Arcuate popliteal ligament. Lig. popliteum ar-cuatum. Curved band of fibers extending from the epicondyle, across the origin ofthe popliteal muscle to the head ofthe fibula, thus reinforcing the posterior wall of the capsule. C

16 Patellar ligament. Ligamentum patellae. Wide (2-3 cm) and thick (ca. 0.5 cm) fibrous band that forms the continuation of the tendon ofthe quadriceps femoris muscle. It extends from the apex of the patella to the tibial tuberosity. A

17 Medial retinaculum of patella. Retinaculum patellae mediale. Aponeurosis from a part ofthe vastus medialis muscle that extends medially from the patella and attaches to the medial margin ofthe tibial tuberosity. It maintains the pathway of movement of the patella via muscular contraction and serves as a reserve extension apparatus. A

18 Lateral retinaculum of patella. Retinaculum patellae laterale. Aponeurosis of a part of the vastus lateralis lateral to the patella with attachment lateral to the tibial tuberosity. Its action is comparable to that of no. 17. A

19 Infrapatellar fat pad. Corpus adiposum infra-patellare. Large, wedge-shaped mass of fatty tissue in front of the knee joint space. It includes the infrapatellar alar and synovial folds. A

20 Tibiofibular joint. Articulatio tibiofibularis. Articulation between the head of the fibula and the lateral condyle of the tibia. E

21 Anterior ligament of head of fibula. Lig.capitis fibulae anterius. Group of fibers passing anteriorly from the head of the fibula to the tibia, thus holding the two bones together. A

22 Posterior ligament of head of fibula. Lig. capitis fibulae posterius. Weaker group of fibers extending from the posterior part of the head of the fibula to the tibia. C D E

23 Tibiofibular syndesmosis [joint]. Syndesmosis [articulatio] tibiofibularis. Distal union of tibia with fibula.

24 Interosseous membrane. Membrana interos-sea cruris. Membrane attached to the interosser-ous margins of the tibia and fibula. It is the field oforiginofthelowerlegmusclesandensuresthe stabilityofthe malleolar bifurcation. AC FG

25 Anterior tibiofibular ligament. Lig. tibiofibu-lare anterius. Anterior fibrous bands connecting the fibular incisure to the lateral malleolus, thus stabilizing the malleolar bifurcation. F

26 Posterior tibiofibular ligament. Lig. tibiofibu-lare posterius. Posterior fibrous bands connecting the fibular incisure to the lateral malleolus, thus stabilizing the malleolar bifurcation. G

"A Right knee joint, anterior view

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