TONGUE MUSCULATURE. Musculi linguae (linguales). The following eight tongue muscles are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (XII). M. genioglossus. o: Mental spine of mandible. i: Fan-shaped distribution within the tongue from the apex to the base. A: It pulls the tongue forward or towards the chin. I: Hypoglossal nerve. C D

M. hyoglossus. o: Body and greater horn of hyoid bone. i: Coming from below, it radiates into the lateral parts of the tongue and penetrates up to the mucosa. A: It draws the base of the tongue backward and downward. I: Hypo-glossal nerve. D

M. chondroglossus. o: Lesser horn of hyoid. i: Same as hyoglossus. I: Hypoglossal nerve. D M. styloglossus. o: Styloid process. i: Coming from behind and above, it radiates to the lateral parts of the tongue and interweaves with the hyoglossus. A: It draws the tongue backward and upward. I: Hypoglossal nerve. D Superior longitudinal muscle of tongue. M. longitudinalis superior. Longitudinal bundles of muscle just below the mucosa that extend from the apex of tongue to the region of the hyoid bone. I: Hypoglossal nerve. C Inferior longitudinal muscle of tongue. M. longitudinalis inferior. Longitudinal fibrous system situated close to the inferior surface of the tongue. It passes from the base to the apex of the tongue. I: Hypoglossal nerve. C Transverse muscle of tongue. M. transversus linguae. Transversely oriented muscle fibers extending between the longitudinal system of fibers. o: Lingual septum. i: Mucous membrane along lateral margins of tongue. A: Extension of tongue together with the vertical muscle of the tongue. I: Hypoglossal nerve. C Vertical muscle of tongue. M. verticalis linguae. Vertical muscle fibers coursing from the back ofthe tongue to the inferior surface. I: Hy-poglossal nerve. C

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