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16 Iridocorneal angle. Angulus iridocornealis. Angle between the iris and cornea. It houses the trabecular meshwork, the interstices of which serve as passageways that drain aqueous humor into the sinus venosus sclerae. A

17 Aqueous humor. Humor aquosus. Fluid produced by the epithelium of the ciliary processes (total quantity: 0.2-0.3 cm3). The clear fluid consists of 98% water, 1.4% NaCl and traces of protein and sugar. It has a refractive index of 1.336.

1 Optic disc (papilla). Discus nervi optici [papilla nervi optici]. Beginning of the optic nerve as visualized in the fundus about 3-4 mm medial to the macula. It is about 1.6 mm in diameter. C

2 Physiological cup. Excavatio disci. Depression in the middle ofthe optic disc with the stems of the central retinal artery and vein. C

3 Macula [[lutea]]. Transversely oval, yellowish area, 2-4 mm in diameter, at the posterior pole of the retina. C

4 Fovea centralis. Central fovea, a small depression in the macula caused by thinning of the upper retinal layers. Its diameter, measured from the beginning of the decrease in retinal thickness from one side to the other, is approximately 1-2 mm. B C

5 Foveola. Thinnest area of fovea centralis with a diameter ofabout 0.2-0.4 mm. Here, the retina is comprised entirely of approx. 2500 closely packed cones. B

6 Retinal blood vessels. Vasa sanguinae retinae. Branches of the central retinal artery and vein located on the internal aspect of the retina.

7 Circle of arteries around the optic nerve. Cir-culus vasculosus nervi optici. Small vascular ring penetrating the sclera around the optic nerve.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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