Spheroidal joint. Articulatio sphaeroidea (cotylica). Ball and socket joint, e.g., the shoulder joint.

Ellipsoidal (condylar) joint. Articulatio ellip-soidea (condylaris). Joint with two axes, e.g., the wrist joint.

Hinge joint. Ginglymus. Joint with one axis, e.g., the elbow joint.

Bicondylar joint. Articulatio bicondylaris. Articulation with one main transverse axis and another axis in the longitudinal direction of a skeletal part., e. g., the knee joint. Trochoidal joint. Articulatio trochoidea. Pivot joint with one axis, e. g., the radio-ulnar joint. Saddle (sellar) joint. Articulatio sellaris. Joint with two axes, e. g., the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb.

Ovoidal joint. [[Articulatio ovoidalis]]. Joint with only weakly curved articular surfaces. Articular cartilage. Cartilago articularis. Articular cavity. Cavitas articularis. Joint cavity. Articular disk. Discus articularis. Disk that divides a joint cavity into two separate chambers.

Meniscus. Meniscus articularis. Ring-like articular disk., e. g., in the knee joint. Articular lip. Labrum articulare. Rim of fi-brocartilage at the margin of a socket. Joint capsule. Capsula articularis. Fibrous membrane. Membrana fibrosa (stratum fibrosum). Connective tissue layer of the capsule often reinforced by ligaments. Synovial membrane. Membrana synovialis (stratum synoviale). Inner layer of the articular capsule comprised of epithelium-like connective tissue cells on loose connective tissue. Synovial fold. Plica synovialis. Fold projecting from the capsule into the joint space. Synovial villi. Villi synoviales. Synovia. Synovial fluid secreted by the synovial membrane of the capsule. Articular ligaments. Ligamenta. Extracapsular ligaments. Ligamenta extra-capsularia. Ligaments lying outside the capsular wall, e. g., the external collateral ligament of the knee joint.

Capsular ligaments. Ligamenta capsularia. Reinforcing fibers outside a joint capsule, e. g., the collateral ligaments of the interphalangeal joints.

Intracapsular ligaments. Ligamenta intra-capsularis. Ligaments located within a joint space, e. g., the cruciate ligaments of the knee joint.

ll myology. Myologia. Study of the muscles. Muscle. Musculus. Head. Caput. Belly. Venter.

Fusiform muscle. Musculus fusiformis. Spindle-shaped muscle. Quadrate muscle. M. quadratus. Square-shaped muscle.

Triangular muscle. M. triangularis. Triangular muscle.

Unipennate muscle. M. unipennatus. Muscle with fibers approaching the tendon from one side.

Bipennate muscle. M. bipennatus. Muscle with fibers approaching the tendon from two sides. Multipennate muscle. M. multipennatus. Muscle with fibers approaching the tendon from many sides. Sphincter muscle. M. sphincter.

11 a Dilator muscle. M. dilator (dilatator).

12 Orbicular muscle. M. orbicularis. Circular muscle.

13 Cruciate muscle. M. cruciatus. Muscle with crossing fibers.

14 Articular muscle. [[M. articularis]]. Muscle which attaches to a joint capsule.

15 Skeletal muscle. M. skeleti. Muscle with attachment to the skeleton in contrast to a cutaneous muscle.

16 Cutaneous muscle. M. cutaneus.

17 Tendon. Tendo.

18 Tendon (synovial) sheath. Vagina tendinis. Lubricated sheath for easy gliding of a tendon.

19 Fibrous layer. Stratum fibrosum. Outer, connective tissue portion of a tendon sheath.

20 Synovial layer. Stratum synoviale. Inner, smooth layer of a tendon sheath. It secretes synovial fluid.

20a Synovial sheath of tendon. Vagina synovialis tendinis. The inner gliding capsule of the fibrous sheath of a tendon.

21 Mesotendineum. Mesentery-like sheath connecting a tendon to its fibrous sheath. It carries blood vessels to the tendon.

22 Peritendineum. Connective tissue on the surface of a tendon.

23 Aponeurosis. Flat tendinous expansion.

23 a Epimysium. Fibrous sheath enveloping an entire muscle.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

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