Deep Pectoral Fascia Impotens

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1 M. depressor anguli oris. [[Triangularis]]. o: 16 Anterior and lateral part of mandible. i: Angle of mouth. I: Facial nerve. A

2 M. transversus menti. Transverse muscular connection between the right and left depressor anguli oris muscles below the chin. I: Facial nerve. A

3 M. risorius. o: Parotid fascia and buccal skin. i: Angle of mouth. I: Facial nerve. A

4 M. zygomaticus major. o: Lateral side of zygo-matic bone. i: Angle of mouth. I: Facial nerve. A

5 M. zygomaticus minor. o: Anterior side of zy-gomatic bone. i: Upper lip. I: Facial nerve. A

6 M. levator labii superioris [[quadratus labii sup., M. levator nasi et labii maxillaris lat.]]. o: Above the infra-orbital foramen. Radiates into orbicularis oris. I: Facial nerve. A

7 M. levator labii superioris alaeque nasi [[quad-ratus labii sup., M. lev. nasi et labii maxillaris med]]. o: Medial to orbit. i: Nasal ala and upper lip. I: Facial nerve. A

8 M. depressor labii inferioris [[quadr. labii inf.]]. Located below the depressor anguli oris. o: Pla-tysmaandmandible.i:Lowerlip.I:Facialnerve.A

9 M. levator anguli oris [[Caninus]]. o: Canine fossa. i: Angle of mouth. I: Facial nerve. A

9 a Modiolus. Palpable muscular mass lateral to the angle of the mouth. Point of convergence of adjacent muscles radiating into the orbicularis oris.

10 M. buccinator. Cheek muscle. o: Pterygoman-dibular raphe and adjoining parts of upper and lower jaw. i: Angle of mouth and orbicularis oris. I: Facial nerve. A B

11 M. mentalis. Arises over the roots of the lower 23 incisors. i: Skin of chin (chin dimple). I: Facial nerve. A

12 M. masseter. Most prominent masticatory 24 muscle. Closes jaw and, together with the tem- 25 poral and medial pterygoid muscles, determines the degree of masticatory power. It is comprised of a superficial and deep part. I: Mandibular nerve. A C

13 Superficial part. Pars superficialis. o: Anterior two-thirds of zygomatic arch. i: Angle of mandible. It courses obliquely backward and downward. It also draws the mandible somewhat forward. C

14 Deep part. Pars profunda. Size varies. Arises from the zygomatic arch proximal to the mandibular joint and discocapsular system. i: Mandible. Action: Together with fibers of the temporal muscles, it ensures lateral stabilization of the discocapsular system during laterotrusal movement. C

15 M. temporalis. o: Temporal fossa. i: Coronoid process that extends downward to the occlusal plane and to the region of the pterygomandibu-lar raphe. Action: Elevation and retraction ofthe mandible, fixation of the pharynx when swallowing; cf. pp. 12,14. I: Mandibular nerve. B

Lateral pterygoid muscle. M. pterygoideus lateralis. o: Lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate and lower surface of greater wing of sphenoid. Arises by two heads (variant: three heads), one from the discocapsular system, the other from the pterygoid fossa. The inferior head pulls the mandible and discocapsular system forward. The superior head determines the velocity at which the discocapsular system is pulled back into place. I: Mandibular nerve. B Medial pterygoid muscle. M. pterygoideus medialis. o: Pterygoid fossa and tuber of maxilla. i: Pterygoid tuberosity and inner aspect of angle of mandible. It courses obliquely downward and backward and is a synergist to the temporalis and masseter muscles. I: Mandibular nerve. B Buccopharyngeal fascia. Fascia buccopharyn-gea. It lies on the buccinator muscle and extends from the angle of the mouth deeply as far as the pharyngeal constrictor muscle. C Masseteric fascia. Fascia masseterica. Fascia covering the masseter muscle, part of which attaches below the parotid at the upper end of the zygomatic arch. D

Parotid fascia. Fascia parotidea. Fascial covering of the parotid, partly identical with the masseteric fascia. D

Temporal fascia. Fascia temporalis. External connective tissue investment of the temporalis muscle between the superior temporal line and the zygomatic arch. It consists of the following two layers. D

Superficial layer. Lamina superficialis. Layer of the temporal fascia attached to the outer margin ofthe zygomatic arch. D Deep layer. Lamina profunda. Layer of the temporal fascia attached to the inner margin of the zygomatic arch. D

NECK MUSCLES. Musculi colli (cervicis). A C Platysma. Cutaneous muscle occupying an extensive area of the neck. It extends from the lower part of the face to the upper thorax. I: Facial nerve. A D

Sternocleidomastoid muscle. M. sternoclei-domastoideus. o: Sternum und clavicle. i: Mas-toid process and superior nuchal line. Itelevates the chin and rotates it to the opposite side. I: Ac-cesory nerve, cervical plexus. C

1 M. longus colli. Arches to connect the 2nd to 5th cervical vertebrae with the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. Its fibers also extend from the vertebral bodies to the transverse processes with the C6 transverse process as the central point. A: Lateral and forward flexion of the neck. I: Ventral ramus of spinal nerve. D

2 M. scalenus anterior. o: Transverse processes of C3-6. i: Scalenetubercleon 1strib.A: Elevationof 1st rib, lateral flexion and rotation of neck. It separates the anterior and posterior or scalenus gaps. I: see p. 1. D

3 M. scalenus medius. o: Transverse processes of C2-7. i: 1st rib behind groove for subclavian artery.A: Elevation of 1st rib and lateral flexion of neck. I: see p. 1. D

4 M. scalenus posterior. o: Transverse processes ofC4-6.i: Upper margin of2ndrib. A: Elevates the rib, laterally flexes the neck. I: see p. 1. D

5 [M. scalenus minimus]. Extra muscle occasionally present between scalenus anterior and medius. o: Transverse processes of C6 or 7. i: 1st rib and pleural cupola.

6 SUPRAHYOID MUSCLES M. suprahyoidei. The following muscles above the hyoid bone. A

7 M. digastricus. o: Notch medial to the mastoid process. i: Inner side of mandible. It has an intermediate tendon which acts on the lesser horn of the hyoid bone by means of a connective tissue sling. A: Elevation of hyoid. A

8 Anterior belly. Venter anterior. It extends from the mandible to the intermediate tendon. A: Pulls mandible forward and depresses it. I: Mylo-hyoid nerve. A E

9 Posterior belly. Venter posterior. It passes from the mastoid process to the intermediate tendon. A: It draws back the hyoid bone. I: Facial nerve. A E

10 M. stylohyoideus. o: Styloid process. i: Lesser horn of hyoid bone. It accompanies the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and can pass through it via a fissure. A: It pulls the hyoid backward and upward. I: Facial nerve. AE

11 M. mylohyoideus. Muscle of the floor of the mouth.o: Mylohyoidlineofmandible.i: Bodyof hyoid bone. A: Draws the hyoid forward and upward and forms the diaphragma oris. I: Mylohy-oid nerve. A B

12 M. geniohyoideus. o: Mental spine. i: Body of hyoid bone. A: Draws the hyoid forward and upward. I: C1 via the hypoglossal nerve. B

13 Infrahyoid muscles. Mm. infrahyoidei. The muscles below the hyoid bone (infrahyoid m.). I: Ansa cervicalis. A

14 M. sternohyoideus. o: Posterior surface of ma-nubrium sterni. i: Body of hyoid bone. A: Draws the hyoid downward. I: see p. 13. A

15 M. omohyoideus. o: Upper margin of scapula medial to scapular notch. i: Body of hyoid bone. An intermediate tendon situated above the jugular vein divides it into two bellies. A: Draws the hyoid downward and tenses the cervical fascia. I: see p. 13. A C

16 Superior belly. Venter superior. Upper segment of omohyoid between the hyoid and intermediate tendon. A

17 Inferior belly. Venter inferior. Lower half of omohyoid from the intermediate tendon to the scapular notch. A

18 M. sternothyroideus. o: Posterior surface of manubrium and 1st rib. i: Oblique line of thyroid cartilage. A: Draws larynx downward. I: seep. 13. A

19 M. thyrohyoideus. o: Oblique line of thyroid cartilage. i: Greater horn of hyoid bone. A: Brings hoyid and thyroid cartilage closer together. I: C1 via hypoglossal nerve. A

20 [M. levator glandulae thyroideae]. Part of the thyrohyoid muscle that extends to the thyroid gland.

21 CERVICAL FASCIA. Fascia cervicalis. Collective term for the connective tissue layers of the neck.

22 Superficial (investing) layer. Lamina superfi-cialis. Superficial layer of cervical fascia that surrounds the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. It is attached to the anterior margin of the manubrium, the clavicle and the mandible. C

23 Pretracheal layer. Lamina pretrachealis. Layer that spreads between the two omohyoid muscles and is attached to the posterior margin ofthe manubrium and clavicle. It surrounds the infrahyoid muscles. C

24 Prevertebral layer. Lamina prevertebralis. Layerthatliesbetweenthevertebralcolumnand pharyngeal constrictors as well as the esophagus, covers the scaleni muscles and contains the sympathetic trunk and phrenic nerve. C

25 Carotid sheath. Vagina carotica. Connective tissue investing the neurovascular bundle (carotid artery, jugular vein and vagus nerve) and continuous with the pretracheal layer. C

1 MUSCLES OF THORAX. Musculi thoracis. A-F

2 [M. sternalis]. Muscle that occasionally (4%) crosses the pectoralis major muscle parallel and proximal to the sternum. A

3 M. pectoralis major. Consists of the three parts listed below(nos. 4-6). o: Clavicle, sternum, first

I 4-6 costal cartilages and rectus sheath. i: Crest of greater tubercle and humerus. A: Adduction and medial rotation of arm. I: Medial and lateral pectoral nerves. A

4 Clavicular part. Pars clavicularis. The portion originating from the clavicle. A

5 Sternocostal part. Pars stenocostalis. The portion arising from the sternum and ribs. A

6 Abdominal part. Pars abdominalis. The portion arising from the rectus sheath. A

7 M. pectoralis minor. It lies beneath the pec-toralis major. o: Ribs 3-5. i: Coracoid process. A: Draws scapula forward and downward and ribs upward. Accessory respiratory muscle. I: see p. 3. A

8 M. subclavius. o: 1st costal cartilage. i: Lower surface of clavicle. A: Stabilizes sternoclavicular joint against tension. I: Subclavian nerve. A

9 Pectoral fascia. Fascia pectoralis. It covers the pectoralis major muscle, is attached to the clavicle and sternum and is continuous with the axillary fascia.

10 Clavipectoral fascia. Fascia clavipectoralis. Fascia attached to the coracoid process and the clavicle. It covers the pectoralis minor and sub-clavius muscles. A

11 M. serratus anterior.o: Ribs 1-9.i: Medial margin of scapula. A: Supports, lowers and rotates the scapula and draws it forward. It assists in raising the arm high above the horizontal plane. I: Long thoracic nerve. A

12 Mm. levatores costarum. Muscles behind and below the long back muscles. o: Thoracic transverse processes. i: Ribs. I: Posterior ramus of spinal nerve. B

13 Mm. levatores costarum longi. o: Transverse processes.i:Passesoveraribtoinsertonthenext lower rib. A: Elevates the ribs. B

14 Mm. levatores costarum breves. o: Transverse process. i: Next lower rib. B

15 External intercostal muscles. Mm. intercostales externi. They extend obliquely forward and downward between the ribs. A: Inspiration, bracing of the ribs. I: Intercostal nerves. A E F

16 External intercostal membrane. Membrana in-tercostalis externa. Membrane that replaces the external intercostal muscles anteriorlybetween the costal cartilages. A

17 Internal intercostal muscles. Mm. intercostales interni. They pass obliquely backward and downward between the ribs. A: Partially expiratory, bracing of the ribs. I: Intercostal nerves. E F

18 Internal intercostal membrane. Membrana in-tercostalis interna. Continuation of the internal intercostal muscles from the rib angle to the vertebrae. E

19 Innermost intercostal muscles. Mm. intercostales intimi. Internal portion of the internal intercostal muscles separated by the intercostal vessels. F

20 Subcostal muscles. Mm. subcostales. Internal intercostal muscles that pass over 1-2 ribs. I: see p. 17. E

21 M. transversus thoracis. Situated on the inner surface of the anterior thoracic wall, it radiates obliquely upward from the sternum to costal cartilages 2-6. I: see p. 17. C

22 Thoracic fascia. Fascia thoracica. Epimysium of the inner thoracic musculature.

23 Diaphragm. Diaphragma [thoraco-abdomi-nale]. Dome-shaped, muscular partition between the thoracic and abdominal cavities. I: Phrenic nerve. C D

24 Lumbar part of diaphragm. Pars lumbalis diaphragmatis. Medial part of the diaphragm arising from the lumbar vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs and fibrous arches. D

25 Right crus of lumbar part. Crus dextrum. o: L1-3(4). D

26 Left crus of lumbar part. Crus sinistrum. o: L1-2(3). D

27 Costal part of diaphragm. Pars costalis dia-phragmatis.Thepartofthediaphragmoriginat-ing from ribs 7-12. C D

28 Sternal part of diaphragm. Pars sternalis diaphragmatis. The part of the diaphragm arising from the sternum. C D

29 Aortic (opening) hiatus. Hiatus aorticus. Passageway for the aorta between the right and left crus ofthe lumbar part. D

30 Esophageal (opening) hiatus. Hiatus oe-sophageus. Passageway for the esophagus and the vagus nerves above the aortic opening. D

31 Central tendon. Centrum tendineum. Clover-leaf-shaped, tendinous central area of the diaphragm. D

32 Foramen for the inferior vena cava. Foramen venae cavae. Opening in the central tendon for the inferior vena cava. D

33 Medial arcuate ligament. Lig. arcuatum medi-ale.Tendinousarchbetweenthebodyandtrans-verse process of L1 or L2 forming the passageway for the psoas muscle. D

34 Lateral arcuate ligament. Lig. arcuatum laterale.Tendinousarchoverthequadratuslum-borum muscle between the transverse process of L1 and the 12th rib. D

35 Median arcuate ligament. Lig. arcuatum medi-anum. Tendinous arch over the aortic hiatus. D

Hiatus Aorticus Animals

Posterior thoracic wall anterior view

Intercostal muscles

Posterior thoracic wall anterior view

Intercostal muscles

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