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1 Auditory ossicles (malleus, incus and stapes).

Ossicula auditoria (auditus). They operate collectively as a bent lever system transferring sound waves from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear.

2 Stapes (stirrup). A stirrup-shaped auditory ossicle. Its base is inserted into the fenestra vesti-buli. A B

3 Head of stapes. Caput stapedis. It lies opposite the base of the stapes and articulates with the lenticular process of the incus. A B

4 Anterior crus (limb.). Crus anterius. The virtually straight anterior limb of the stapes. A B

5 Posterior crus (limb.). Crus posterius. The more curved posterior limb of the stapes. A B

6 Base (footplate) of stapes. Basis stapedis. The plate of bone inserts into the fenestra vestibuli (ovalis). A B

7 Incus (anvil). The central ossicle situated between the head of the malleus and the head of the stapes. A D

8 Body of incus. Corpus incudis. It articulates with the malleus by means of a saddle-shaped joint. A

9 Long crus (limb.). Crus longum. Long process which projects almost vertically downward behind the manubrium of the malleus with the lenticular process at its tip. A

10 Lenticular process. Processus lenticularis. Small bony projection on the tip of the long crus. It articulates with the stapes. A

11 Short crus (limb). Crus breve. Small posteriorly directed process attached to the incudal fossa by a ligament. A

12 Malleus [[hammer]]. It lies between the tympanic membrane and the incus. A C

13 Handle (manubrium) of malleus. Manu-brium mallei. Its outer surface is fused to the tympanic membrane as far as the lateral process. A

14 Head of malleus. Caput mallei. It has a convex articular surface for accomodation of the body of the incus. A

15 Neck of malleus. Collum mallei. Structure connecting the head and manubrium of the malleus. A

16 Lateral process of malleus. Processus later-alis. Short process that projects from the end of the manubrium and produces the mallear prominence. A

17 Anterior process of malleus. Processus anterior. Long, very thin process. It extends into the petrotympanic fissure in the newborn, but diminishes in the adult. A

18 Articulations of auditory ossicles. Articula-tiones ossiculorum auditoriorum. They are not true joints but syndesmoses.

19 Incudomallear joint. Articulatio incudomal-learis. Joint between the incus and malleus. It occasionally exhibits an articular cavity. A

20 Incudostapedial articulation. Articulatio in-cudostapedialis. Union between the lenticular process of the long crus of the incus and the stapes. A

21 Tympanostapedial syndesmosis. Syndesmo-sis tympanostapedialis. Connective tissue attaching the base of the stapes to the oval window. It is broader anteriorly than posteriorly. B

22 Ligaments of auditory ossicles. Ligg. os-siculorum auditoriorum.

23 Anterior ligament of malleus. Lig. mallei an-terius. Ligament that arises from the anterior process of the malleus, lies in the anterior mal-lear fold and extends as far as the petrotym-panic fissure. D

24 Superior ligament of malleus. Lig. mallei su-perius. It passes from the head of the malleus to the roof of the epitympanic recess. C D

25 Lateral ligament of malleus. Lig. mallei laterale. It unites the neck of the malleus with the upper margin of the tympanic notch. C

26 Superior ligament of incus. Lig. incudis su-perius. Courses approximately parallel to the superior ligament of the malleus and connects the body of the incus with the roof of the epitympanic recess. C D

27 Posterior ligament of incus. Lig. incudis post-erius. It passes from the short limb of the incus to the lateral wall of the tympanic cavity. C D

28 Stapedial membrane. Membrana stapedialis. Thin membrane between the limbs and base of the stapes. B

29 Anular ligament of stapes. Lig. anulare stapediale. Ligament situated between the base of the stapes and the margin of the oval window. It is broader anteriorly than posteriorly. B

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