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Cardiac veins 20a

1 Thymic veins. Vv. thymicae. Small branches from the thymus. A

2 Pericardiac veins. Vv. pericardiacae. Small branches from the pericardium. A

3 Pericardiacophrenic veins. Vv. pericardiaco-phrenicae. Veins accompanying the pericardia-cophrenic arteries from the surface of the di-phragm and from the pericardium. A

4 Mediastinal veins. Vv. mediastinales. Small branches from the mediastinum. A

5 Bronchial veins. Vv. bronchiales. Small branches from the bronchi. A

6 Tracheal veins. Vv. tracheales. Small branches from the trachea. A

7 Esophageal veins. Vv. oesophageales. Small branches from the esophagus. A

8 Vertebral vein. V. vertebralis. Companion vein of vertebral artery; usually arises as a venous plexus. A

9 Occipital vein. V. occipitalis. Arises in the venous network of the scalp. It frequently opens into the vertebral vein, but also into the internal or external jugular veins. A

10 Anterior vertebral vein. V. vertebralis anterior. Companion vein of ascending cervical artery. It opens inferiorly into the vertebral vein. A

11 Accessory vertebral vein. [V. vertrebralis accessorial. A continuation of the venous plexus of the vertebral artery that often emerges from the foramen transversarium of C7. A

12 Suboccipital venous plexus. Plexus venosus suboccipitalis. Venous plexus between the occipital bone and atlas. A

13 Deep cervical vein. V. cervicalis profunda. Accompanies the deep cervical artery beneath the semispinalis capitis and cervicis muscles. A

14 Internal thoracic veins. Vv. thoracicae inter-nae. Accompany the internal thoracic artery, often in twos up to the third costal cartilage, then singly from that point and medial to the artery. A

15 Superior epigastric veins. Vv. epigastricae superiores. Accompanies the superior epigastric artery. It empties parasternally into the internal thoracic veins behind the costal cartilages. A

16 Subcutaneous abdominal veins. Vv. subcu-taneae abdominis. Cutaneous veins which empty into the superior epigastric veins. A

17 Musculophrenic veins. Vv. musculophrenicae. Accompany the muscalophrenic arteries. A

18 Anterior intercostal veins. Vv. intercostales anteriores. Branches in the intercostal spaces. A

19 Supreme intercostal vein. V. intercostalis suprema. Carries blood from the first intercostal space to the brachiocephalic or vertebral vein. A

20 Left superior intercostal vein. V. intercostalis superior sinistra. Drains intercostal spaces 2-3(4) on the left side. It opens posteriorly into the left brachiocephalic vein. A

21 INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN. V. jugularis interna. Main vein of the neck extending from the jugular foramen to the venous angle. A

22 Superior bulb of jugular vein. Bulbus superior venae jugularis. Dilatation of the internal jugular vein at its origin in the jugular foramen. A

23 Vein of cochlear aqueduct. V. aquaeductus cochleae. Minute accompanying vein of the perilymphatic duct. A

24 Inferior bulb of jugular vein. Bulbus inferior venae jugularis. Dilatation at the end of the internal jugular vein. It is closed cranially by a valve. A

25 Pharyngeal plexus. Plexus pharyngeus (pharyngealis). Venous plexus on the pharyn-geal muscles. A

26 Pharyngeal veins. Vv. pharyngeales. Veins from the pharyngeal plexus. A

27 Meningeal veins. Vv. meningeae. Small venous branches from the dura.

28 Lingual vein. V. lingualis. It generally follows the lingual artery. A

29 Dorsal lingual veins. Vv. dorsales linguae. Numerous veins from the dorsum of the tongue. A

30 Companion vein of hypoglossal nerve. V.

comitans n. hypoglossi. A

31 Sublingual vein. V. sublingualis. Larger vein situated lateral to the hypoglossal nerve. A

32 Deep lingual vein. V. profunda linguae. Accompanying vein of the deep lingual artery lateral to the genioglossus. A

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