1 ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Glandulae endocrinae. Ductless glands.
2 Thyroid gland. Glandula thyroidea. Gland that produces the metabolism-stimulating hormones thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine. Pathological enlargement of the thyroid is called goiter. A B
3 Right and left lobe. Lobus glandulae thyroidea (dexter/sinister). Either of the lobes (right/left) of the thyroid situated on either side of the trachea. A
4 Isthmus of thyroid gland. Isthmus glandulae thyroideae. Band of tissue connecting the right and left lobes of the thyroid. A
5 Pyramidal lobe. [Lobus pyramidalis]. Remnant occasionally found as a median cord of thyroid tissue. A
6 Accessory thyroid glands. Glandulae thy-roideae accessoriae. Dispersed islands of thyroid glandular tissue, e.g., at the base of the tongue.
7 Fibrous capsule. Capsula fibrosa. Double-layered capsule of thyroid gland.
8 Stroma. Connective tissue that forms the framework of the thyroid gland. C
9 Parenchyma. Cells essential for thyroid function. C
10 Lobules. Lobuli. Segments of thyroid parenchyma partitioned by connective tissue. B
11 Superior parathyroid gland. Glandula para-thyroidea superior. Superior lentil-sized epithelial body located behind the thyroid. It produces parathormone, which regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism. B
12 Inferior parathyroid gland. Glandula parathy-roidea inferior. Inferior lentil-shaped epithelial body located behind the thyroid. It produces parathormone, which regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism. B
13 Hypophysis (pituitary gland). Hypophysis (glandula pituitaria). Gland located within the sella turcica; it is the most versatile functioning endocrine gland. D
14 Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe). Large anterior lobe of pituitary derived from stomodeal ectoderm (Rathke's pouch). The cell types within its parenchyma are functionally and his-tochemically different. D
15 Pars tuberalis. Portion of adenohypophysis covering the hypophyseal stalk. D
16 Pars intermedia. Narrow middle part of the adenohypophysis containing colloidal cysts. D
17 Pars distalis. Anterior, largest segment of the adenohypophysis. D
18 [[Pars pharyngea]. Adenohypophyseal tissue that forms the remains of Rathke's pouch beneath the pharyngeal mucosa.
19 Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe). Smaller posterior portion of the pituitary gland derived from the diencephalon. It serves only as a storage depot for hormones. D
20 Infundibulum. Funnel-like stalk of the pituitary. D
21 Neural lobe. Lobus nervosus. True posterior lobe of pituitary gland. It is a hormon storage area. D
22 Pineal body (gland). Corpus pineale (glandula pinealis). Structure derived from the dien-cephalon; it lies above the quadrigeminal plate (lamina tecti). D
23 Thymus. Lymphatic organ situated behind the sternum. It undergoes regression at puberty. E
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.