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1 skin (integument). Integumentum commune. Common integument (skin). The outer covering of the body consisting of three layers, the epidermis, dermis (corium) and subcutis. In the adult it covers an area of about 1.8 square meters.

2 Cutis. Collective term for epidermis and dermis.

3 Sulci of skin. Sulci cutis. Variably sized depressions or furrows on the surface of the skin, e. g., the nasolabial sulcus, the deep sulci of the joints, the fine depressions on the smooth areas of the skin, and the dermal ridges on the palms and soles. A

4 Dermal ridges. Cristae cutis. Ridges produced by the underlying papillae of the corium on the thick skin of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. A

5 Retinacula cutis. Bands of connective tissue which attach the skin to the underlying tissue. A

6 Tactile elevations. Toruli tactiles. Skin regions with more abundant fat deposits, e. g., near the phalanges, thenar and hypothenar eminences. B

7 Coccygeal foveola. [Foveola coccygea]. Pit above the coccyx caused by the caudal reti-naculum. C

8 Caudal retinaculum. Retinaculum caudale. Connective tissue remains of the embryonic notochord lying between the coccygeal foveola and the coccyx. C

9 Epidermis. Stratified, keratinized squamous epithelium covering the body. Its thickness varies from 30 ^m to 4 mm or more. A

10 Stratum corneum. Most superficial, cornified (keratinized) layer of the epidermis which undergoes continual desquamation. A

11 Stratum lucidum. Located between the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. It is a homogeneous, strongly refractile layer rich in eleidin fibers. A

12 Stratum granulosum. It consists of 1-5 cell layers with degenerative nuclear changes. It contains stongly refractory keratohyaline granules. A

13 Stratum spinosum. Prickle cell layer. It consists of polygonal cells with spinous processes which project from their surfaces and contact each other by means of a desmosome. They appear to bridge over relatively large intercellular spaces (shrinkage artifact). A

14 Stratum basale [cylindricum]. Deepest, cylindrical cell layer of the epidermis. Cell proliferation occurs here and in the stratum spinosum, thus ensuring the continual renewal of the epidermis. A

15 Dermis (corium). The layer of skin consisting of an intimate network of collagenous and elastic fibers rich in nerves and blood vessels and devoid of fat. A

Feneis, Pocket Atlas of Human Anatomy © 2000 Thieme

16 Papillary layer. Stratum papillare. The delicate upper layer of the dermis with numerous connective tissue papillae connecting it to the epidermis. A

17 Papillae. Conical extensions ofconnective tissue projecting into the epidermis. They may form rows (dermal ridges) or branches and vary markedly in form and organization. A E

18 Reticular layer. Stratum reticulare. Part of dermis adjoining the papillary layer. It consists of more compact, densely interwoven connective tissue. A

19 Subcutaneous tissue. Tela subcutanea. Layer of subcutaneous fatty tissue compartmentalized by fibrous tracts and firmly connected with the corium with mobile connections to the fascia. A

20 Panniculus adiposus. The thicker layer of fat in the subcutaneous tissue. A

21 Terminal nerve corpuscles. Corpuscula nervosa terminalia. Collective term for encapsulated nerve endings.

22 End bulbs of Krause (bulboid corpuscles). Corpuscula bulboidea. Oval convolutions of nerve fibers found especially in the lamina propria of the mucosa. They are considered to be cold receptors. E

23 Lamellated [Vater-Pacini, pacinian]] corpuscles. Corpuscula lamellosa. Oval bodies, 23 mm long, with concentric layers of connective tissue surrounding an inner core (axon and Schwann cells). They are pressure receptors found in the subcutaneous fat muscles and viscera. A

24 Tactile [Meissner's]] corpuscles. Corpuscula tactus. These encapsulated sensory organs in the connective papilla of the dermis measure about 0.1 mm in length and consist of transversely oriented tactile cells within a ramified nerve network. A

25 Genital corpuscles. [[Corpusculagenitalia]].El-liptical, encapsulated nerve endings similar to the end bulbs of Krause and found abundantly in the clitoris, glans and nipple. E

26 Tactile menisci [Merkel's discs or corpuscles]]. Menisci tractus. Flat group of light cellswithintracellularneurofibrils.Theyoccupy the epithelium. D

27 Articular corpuscles. [[Corpuscula articularia]]. Modified pacinian corpuscles within joint capsules.

28 Lunula. Crescentic, whitish area at the base of the nail. Its anterior margin corresponds to the anterior border of the nail-forming tissue. C

29 Margo occultus. Proximal, posterior margin of a nail located deep within the nail sinus. D

1 Pili. Collective term for any type of hair.

2 Lanugo. Fine woolly hair which is distributed over the entire body, especially in the newborn. It usually lacks a medulla.

3 Scalp hairs. Capilli.

4 Hairs of eyebrow. Supercilia.

5 Eyelashes. Cilia.

6 Hairs of beard. Barba.

7 Hairs of external acoustic meatus. Tragi.

8 Hairs of the nasal vestibule. Vibrissae.

9 Axillary hairs. Hirci.

10 Pubic hairs. Pubes.

11 Hair follicle. Folliculus pili. Connective tissue epithelium covering of the hair root. A

12 Hair papilla. Papilla pili. Connective tissue papilla which projects into the bulb-like, distended lowermost part of the hair root. A

13 Hair shaft. Scapus pili. Part of the hair that projects out from the skin. A

14 Hair root. Radix pili. A

15 Bulb of hair. Bulbus pili. Bulb-like enlargement at the lower end of the hair root. A

16 Mm. arrectores pilorum. Bundles of smooth muscle passing from the middle of the hair follicle to the papillary layer of the dermis. They are absent on hair of eyelashes, eyebrows, nose, ear and beard. A.: erect hairs (goose-bumps), probably also compression and emptying of sebaceous glands. Innervation: sympathetic fibers from the sympathetic ganglion. A

17 Hair streams. Flumina pilorum. Orientational patterns ofhair. B

18 Whorled pattern of hair growth. Vortices pilorum. B

19 Cruciate pattern of hair growth. Cruces pilorum. It is found at sites where the hair patterns meet from two directions and continue two newdirections perpendicular to each other. B

20 Nails. Unguis. Fingernails and toenails. C D

21 Nail matrix (bed). Matrix unguis. Tissue (epidermis) upon which the nail rests (root and lunula). Nail substance is formed in the region of the lunula. D E

22 Crests of nail matrix. Cristae matricis unguis. Longitudinal ridges in nail bed. E

23 Nail groove (fold). Sulcus matricis unguis. Cutaneous slit into which the lateral nasal margins

Iare embedded. C

24 Nail sinus. Sinus unguis. Deep furrow into which the root of the nail is inserted. D

25 Wall of nail. Vallum unguis. Cutaneous fold overlapping the sides and proximal end of the nail. C D

26 Body of nail. Corpus unguis. C D E

27 Root of nail. [[Radix unguis]]. Part of nail situated in the nail sinus. D

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