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1 AZYGOS VEIN. Vena azygos. Lumbar vein that arises from the ascending lumbar vein and opens into the superior vena cava at the level of T4-5 shortly before its entrance into the percardium. A

1a Arch of azygos vein. Arcus venae azygos. Venous arch before the site where the azygos vein enters the superior vena cava.

2 Right superior intercostal vein. V. intercostalis superior dextra. Formed by the union of 2nd and 3rd (4th) right superior intercostal veins. It opens into the azygos vein. A

3 Hemiazygos vein. V. hemiazygos. Frequently arises from the left ascending lumbar vein. It receives intercostal veins 9-11 and drains into the azygos vein usually at the level of T9-10. A

4 Accessory hemiazygos vein. V. hemiazygos ac-cessoria. After receiving intercostal veins 4-8, it opens into the azygos vein either alone or together with the hemiazygos vein. However, it can also take up the first three intercostal veins and then anastomose with the left brachiocephalic vein. A

5 Esophageal veins. Vv. oesophageales. Veins from the esophagus draining into the azygos vein. A

6 Bronchial veins. Vv. bronchiales. Branches from the bronchi emptying into the azygos or hemiazy-gos veins. A

7 Pericardial veins. Vv. pericardiales. Branches from the pericardium thatjoin the azygos vein, superior vena cava or brachiocephalic vein. A

8 Mediastinal veins. Vv. mediastinales. Small branches from the mediastinum draining partially into the superior vena cava. A

9 Superior phrenic veins. Vv. phrenicae superiores. Small veins from the surface of the diaphragm. A

10 Ascending lumbar vein. V. lumbalis ascendens. Abdominal segments of the azygos on the right and the hemiazygos on the left. Collateral vein to theinferiorvenacavaviathecommoniliacvein.A B

11 Lumbar veins. Vv. lumbales. Segmental veins 1 and 2 opening into the ascending lumbar vein. A

12 Subcostalvein.V.subcostalis.Venoussegmentlo-cated below the 12th rib. From this tributary onward, the right and left longitudinal venous conduits are designated as the azygos and the hemi-azygos veins, respectively. AB

13 Posterior intercostal veins. Vv. intercostales posteriores. Those from 4 to 11 drain into either the azygos vein or hemiazygos vein. A

14 Dorsal branch. Ramus dorsalis. Branch from the muscles and skin of the back. AB

15 Intervertebral vein. V. intervertebralis. Branch from the intervertebral foramen. B

16 Spinal branch. Ramus spinalis. Branch from the spinal cord and its meninges. B

16 a Veins of the vertebral column. Venae columnae vertebralis.

17 Anterior/posterior external vertebral venous plexus. Plexus venosus vertebralis externus anterior/posterior. Venous plexus in front of the vertebral body and behind the vertebral arch. B

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

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