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1 SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY. Arteria subclavia. It lodges between the scalenus anterior and medius in the groove for the subclavian artery on the 1st rib. At the lateral margin of the 1st rib it continues as the axillary artery. A

2 Vertebral artery. A. vertebralis. It originates behind the scalenus anterior, passes through the foramina transversaria cranially from C6-C1, and then, after proceeding over the arch of the atlas behind its lateral mass, runs anteriorly through the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane and the foramen magnum into the cranial cavity. A B D

3 Prevertebral part of vertebral artery. Pars prevertebral.This short segment lies in front of the entrance into the foramen transversariumofC6. A

4 Vertebral part of vertebral artery. Pars transversaria (cervicalis). It ascends through the foramina transversia of C6 to C1. A

5 Spinal branches. Rami spinales (radiculares). Branches passing with the spinal nerves to supplythe spinal cord, the meningeal coverings ofthe spinal cord and the vertebral bodies. A

6 Muscular branches. Rami musculares. They supply the surrounding muscles. A

7 Atlantal (suboccipital) part. Pars atlantica. Por-tionofthevertebralarterythatwindsaroundthe atlas and occupies the suboccipital triangle. A

8 Intracranial part of vertebral artery. Pars in-tracranialis. It lies within the cranium. A

9 Anterior meningeal branch. Ramus meningeus [anterior]. Branch at the anterior circumference of the foramen magnum. It supplies bone and dura. A

10 Posterior meningeal branch. Ramus meningeus [posterior]. Branch at the posterior circumference of the foramen magnum. It supplies bone and dura. A

11 Anterior spinal artery. A. spinalis anterior. The right and left arteries join to form an unpaired vessel in the anterior median fissure of the spinal cord. A B

12 Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). A.

inferior posterior cerebelli. It mainly supplies the lower posterior portion of the cerebellum. A B D

13 Choroid branch of PICA. Ramus choroideus ventriculi quarti. It supplies the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle.

14 Tonsillar branch of PICA. Ramus tonsillae cere-belli. Branch that supplies the tonsil of the cerebellum.

15 Medial and lateral medullary branches of

PICA. Rami medullares medialis et lateralis. Branches that supply the medulla oblongata and the inferior cerebellar peduncle.

16 Posterior spinal artery. A. spinalis posterior. Slender longitudinal vessel, occasionally paired, behind the spinal cord. It arises intracranially from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery or the vertebral artery. B D

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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