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Opened heart, left anterior view

1 Trabeculae carneae. Muscular cords projecting into the lumen of the heart. A

2 Vortex of heart. Vortex cordis. Whorled arrangement of heart muscle cells at the apex of the heart. B

3 Papillary muscles. Musculi papillares. Cone-shaped muscles projecting into the lumen of the heart. They are connected to the valvular cusps via chordae tendineae and regulate the position of the cusps. A D

4 Chordae tendineae. Tendinous filaments between the papillary muscles and the atri-oventricular valve. A D

5 Right/left fibrous trigone. Trigonum fibrosum dextrum/sinistrum. Connective tissue wedge between the aorta and the atrioventricular opening anteriorly and posteriorly. C

6 Right/left fibrous ring. Anulus fibrosus dexter/ sinister. Fibrous rings between the atria and ventricles that give attachment to the atri-oventricular valves. C

6a Tendon of infundibulum. Tendo infundibuli. Vestige of the embryonic spiral septum. C; see also page 185 D

7 Myocardium. Transversely striated heart muscle fibers with intercalated discs including the impulse-conducting system. A D

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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