1 Lateral atlanto-axial joint. Articulatio atlanto-axialislateralis.Jointbetweenthe inferior articular facet of the atlas and the superior articular facetofthe axis.AB

2 Median atlanto-axial joint. Articulatio atlanto-axialis mediana. Articulation between the atlas and the dens of the axis. C

3 Alar ligaments. Ligg. alaria. Paired ligaments extending from the dens of the axis to the lateral margin of the foramen magnum. A B

4 Apical ligament of the dens. Lig. apicis dentis. Unpaired ligament extending from the apex of the dens to the anterior margin of the foramen magnum. AC

5 Cruciform ligament of atlas. Lig. cruciforme atlantis. Cruciate ligament consisting of the two following ligamentous bands (6, 7) located between the dens and the tectorial membrane. B

6 Longitudinal fasciculi of cruciform ligament. Fasciculi longitudinales. Connective tissue tracts from the body of the axis to the anterior margin of the foramen magnum.They are sit-uatedbehindthedensanditsapicalligament.BC

7 Transverse ligament of atlas. Lig. transver-sum atlantis. Part of the cruciform ligament of the atlas passing behind the dens and extending transversely from one side of the atlas to the other. It holds the dens in position. B C

8 Tectorial membrane. Membrana tectoria. Bilayered continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament. It passes from the axis to the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and is continuous with the dura-periosteal layer of the skull base. C

9 JOINTS OF THORAX. Articulationes thoracis. Articular connections of the skeleton of the thorax.

10 COSTOVERTEBRAL JOINTS. Articulationes cos-tovertebrales.Joints between the ribs and vertebrae. D

11 Joints of rib heads. Articulatio capitis costae (costalis). Articular unions that connect the headsoftheribswiththevertebralbodiesandin-tervertebral discs. D

12 Radiate ligament of head of rib. Lig. capitis costae radiatum. Ligament radiating predomi-nantlyfromtheanteriorsideoftheheadofaribto the adjacent vertebral body and intervertebral disc.D E

13 Intra-articular ligament of head of rib. Lig. capitis costae intra-articulare. Ligamentextend-ing from the crest of the head of the rib to the in-tervertebraldisc.Itliesbetweenthetwoarticular facets ofthe headofthe rib. E

14 Costotransverse joint. Articulatio costotrans-versaria. Joint between the articular surface of the tubercle of the rib and the transverse process ofthe corresponding vertebra. D

15 Costotransverse ligament. Lig. costotransver-sarium. Ligament between the neckofa rib and the transverse process of the corresponding vertebra. D

16 Superior costotransverse ligament. Lig. co-stotransversarium superius. Ligament extending from a rib to the next higher transverse process.E

17 Lateral costotransverse ligament. Lig.costotr-ansversariumlaterale. Ligament extending from the end of a transverse process to the corresponding rib. D

18 Lumbocostal ligament. Lig. lumbocostale. Deep layer of the thoracolumbar fascia. Fibrous connection between the costal process ofthe lumbar vertebrae, the twelfth rib, and the edge ofthe pelvis.

19 Costotransverse foramen. Foramen costotrans-versarium. Opening for the intercostal nerves between the superior costotransverse ligament and the neck ofthe rib. E

20 Sternocostal joint. Articulationes sterno-costales. Articulations between the costal cartilage and sternum. F

21 Intra-articular sternocostal ligament. Lig. sternocostal intra-articulare. Ligament within the articular cavity between the costal cartilage and sternum, especially pronounced at the 2nd rib. F

22 Radiate sternocostal ligaments. Ligg. sterno-costaliaradiata. Fiber tracts located in frontofthe sternocostal joint and radiating from the end of the costal cartilage to the sternum. F

23 Sternal membrane. Membrana sterni. Membranous covering of the anterior surface of the sternum formed by the fibers of the radiate ster-nocostal ligaments. F

24 Costoxiphoid ligaments. Ligg. costoxiphoidea. Fiber tracts extending downward from the 7th costal cartilage to the xiphoid process.

25 External intercostal membrane. Membrana in-tercostalis externa. Continuation oftheexternal intercostal muscles at the sternal end of the intercostal space. F

26 Internal intercostal membrane. Membrana in-tercostalis interna. Continuation of the internal intercostal muscles near the vertebral end of the intercostal space. E

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