1 DESCENDING AORTA. Pars descendens aortae. Descending portion of the aorta beginning at the isthmus of the arch of the aorta and terminating at its bifurcation at the level of the body of L4.
2 THORACIC AORTA. Pars thoracica aortae. Part of the descending aorta extending down to its entrance into the diaphragm. AB
3 Bronchial branches. Rami bronchiales. Their origin is very variable but often at the level of the bifurcation of the trachea. They supply the airways up to the respiratory bronchioles including the interlobular connective tissue and the visceral pleura. A
4 Esophageal branches. Rami oesophageales. Small branches to the esophagus. A
5 Pericardial branches. Rami pericardiaci. Small branches to the posterior wall of the pericardium. A
6 Mediastinal branches. Rami mediastinales. Numerous fine branches to the lymph nodes and the connective tissue of the posterior mediastinum. A
7 Superior phrenic arteries. Aa. phrenicae superiores. Small branches from the lower thoracic aorta to the adjacent parts of the diaphragm. A
8 Posterior intercostal arteries. Aa. intercostales posteriores. Posterior supply of intercostal spaces 3-9. A B
9 Dorsal branch. Ramus dorsalis. Posterior branch for the supplyofthe muscles and skin of the back. B
10 Spinal branches. Rami spinales. Branches passing through the intervertebral foramina to supply the spinal cord and its membranes. B
10 a Postcentral branch. Ramus postcentralis.
10 b Prelaminar branch. Ramus praelaminaris.
10c Posterior radicular artery. A.radicularisposterior.
10 d Anterior radicular artery. A. radicularis anterior.
10 e Segmental medullary artery. A. medullaris segmentalis.
11 Medial cutaneous branch. Ramus cutaneus medialis. Branch that runs alongside the spinous process to the skin. B
12 Lateral cutaneous branch. Ramus cutaneus lateralis. Branch of the dorsal ramus running beneath the skin further laterally. B
13 Collateral branch [supracostal branch]].
Ramus collateralis [[ramus supracostalis]]. Branch arising in the vicinity of the costal angle and running parallel to the intercostal artery. It proceeds anteriorly along the upper margin of the next lowest riband anastomoses with the internal thoracic artery. A B
14 Lateral cutaneous branch. Ramus cutaneus lateralis. Branch running laterally beneath the skin and ramifying both anteriorly and posteriorly. B
15 Lateral mammary branches. Rami mammarii laterales. Branches from the lateral cutaneous branches to the mammary gland. B
16 Subcostal artery. A. subcostalis. Segmental arterial branch lying below the 12th rib. It corresponds to an intercostal artery.
17 Dorsal branch. Ramus dorsalis. It passes to the muscles and skin ofthe back. B
18 Spinal branch. Ramus spinalis. It passes through the 12th intervertebral foramen to supply the spinal cord and its membranes. B
19 ABDOMINAL AORTA. Pars abdominalis aortae. Portion of the aorta extending from its entrance into the diaphragm to its bifurcation at the level ofthe body of L4. A
20 Inferior phrenic artery. A. phrenica inferior. Paired arteries that supply the diaphragm, which theyenter from below. A
21 Superior suprarenal arteries. Aa. suprarenales (adrenales) superiores. Uppermost group of three suprarenal arteries. A
22 Lumbar arteries. Aa. lumbales. Four segmental arteries which correspond to the intercostal arteries. A
23 Dorsal branch. Ramus dorsalis. Branch that supplies the muscles of the back and the medial skin segments. A
24 Spinal branch. Ramus spinalis. Branch passing through the intervertebral foramen to supply the spinal cord and its membranes.
25 Median sacral artery. A. sacralis mediana.Thin median continuation ofthe aorta.A
26 Lowest lumbar arteries. Aa. lumbales imae. Paired lateral branches of the median sacral artery. They correspond to a 5th lumbar artery. A
26 a Lateral sacral branches. Rami sacrales later ales. They anastomose with the lateral sacral arteries of the internal iliac artery.
27 Coccygeal body. Glomus coccygeum. Mass containing arteriovenous anastomoses and epithelioid cells located at the end ofthe median sacral artery in front of the tip of the coccyx. A
28 Celiac trunk. Truncus coeliacus. Common stem of the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries at the level ofT12. A
29 Leftgastricartery.A.gastricasinistra.Arteryas-cending in the left gastropancreatic fold to the cardiac portion of the stomach and continuing along the lesser curvature. A
30 Esophageal branches. Rami oesophageales. Small branches that supply the esophageal segment above the cardia of the stomach. A
1 Common hepatic artery. A. hepatica communis. Branch of the celiac trunk (occasionally also the superior mesenteric artery) passing to the right side toward the liver and dividing into the gastroduodenal artery and the hepatic artery proper. Besides supplying the liver, it also partially supplies the stomach, duodenum and pancreas. A C
2 Hepatic artery proper. A. hepatica propria. One of the two terminal branches of the common hepatic artery. It passes into the liver. ABC
3 Right gastric artery. A. gastrica dextra. It passes to the upper margin of the pylorus, then along the lesser curvature of the stomach to anastomose with the left gastric artery. A
4 Right branch of hepatic artery proper (right hepatic artery). Ramus dexter. It passes to the right side of the hilum of the liver and supplies the right lobe. It frequently also arises from the superior mesen-teric artery. A B
5 Cystic artery. A. cystica. Originating from the right branch of the hepatic artery proper, it passes to the anterior and posterior surfaces of the gallbladder. A B
6 Artery to caudate lobe. A. lobi caudati. B
7 Anterior segmental artery. A. segmenti anterioris. It supplies the anterior segment of the liver. B
8 Posterior segmental artery. A. segmenti posteri-oris. It supplies the posterior segment of the liver. B
9 Left branch of hepatic artery proper (left hepatic artery.) Ramus sinister. It supplies the left lobe of the liver. A B
10 Artery to caudate lobe. A. lobi caudati. B
11 Medial segmental artery. A. segmenti medialis. It supplies the medial segment of the liver. B
12 Lateral segmental artery. A. segmenti lateralis. It supplies the lateral segment of the liver. B
12a Intermediate branch. Ramus intermedius. It supplies the quadrate lobe. B Gastroduodenal artery. A. gastroduodenalis. Behind the lower margin of the pylorus, it divides into an anterior supraduodenal artery and the right gastro-omental artery. A C Supraduodenal artery. [A. supraduodenal]. Inconstant first branch that supplies the anterior 2/3 and the posterior 1/3 of the duodenum. Posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. A. pacreaticoduodenalis superior posterior. Arising behind the pancreas it follows the duodenum somewhat and anastomoses with the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery. C Pancreatic branches. Rami pancreatici. Branches to the head of the pancreas. Duodenal branches. Rami duodenales. Retroduodenal arteries. Aa. retroduodenales. Branches of gastroduodenal artery that supply posterior surface of duodenum and head of pancreas. They cross over the bile duct and con-
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.