Mucous membrane of tongue Tunica mucosa 18 linguae C

2 Frenulum of tongue. Frenulum linguae. Mucosal fold extending from the floor of the mouth to the inferior side of the tongue. D; see also p.113. D

3 Lingual papillae. Papillae linguales. Collective term for the following five different types of mucosal formations: A B

■ 4 Filiform papillae. Papillae filiformes. Fine, almost threadlike epithelial elevations on a connective tissue core. Their tips that are often cleft. A

5 Conical papillae. Papillae conicae. Special form of filiform papilla. They are somewhat larger, longer and exhibit conical apices which bend backwards. A

6 Fungiform papillae. Papillae fungiformes. Mushroom-like papillae which are not pointed at the tip, but terminate with a small plateau. A B

7 Vallate (circumvallate) papillae. Papillae val-latae. 7-12 large papillae located in front of the sulcus terminalis. They are circular in cross-section and are surrounded by a moat, the wall of which contains taste buds. A B

8 Lenticular papillae. Papilla lentiformes. Short fungiform papillae. A

9 Foliate papilla. Papillae foliatae. Several parallel folds containing taste buds at the post-erolateral margin of the tongue. B D

10 Median groove of tongue. Sulcus medianus linguae. Shallow, median longitudinal groove situated above the lingual septum. B C

11 Sulcus terminalis [["V" linguae]]. Bilateral groove passing obliquely forward from the foramen caecum. It lies behind the row of vallate papillae which run parallel to it. B Foramen caecum linguae. Pit situated at the apex of the sulcus terminalis. It is the embryo-logical remains of the thyroglossal duct. B Thyroglossal duct. Ductus thyroglossalis. Embryological connection between thyroid gland and tongue. At the site of the future foramen caecum, it extends downward from the base of the tongue as an epithelial cone. Lingual tonsil. Tonsilla lingualis. Accumulation of lymphatic tissue (lingual follicles) which is irregularly distributed over the root of the tongue. B D

15 Lingual follicles. Folliculi linguales. Dome-shaped protrusions of the mucosa, 1-5 mm in diameter, caused by masses of lymphatic tissue beneath them. Each has a central crypt. A

16 Lingual septum. Septum lingualis. Connective tissue plate with a special fibrous architecture located in the midsagittal plane. C

17 Lingual aponeurosis. Aponeurosis lingualis. Stout connective tissue framework of the tongue between the muscles and the mucosa. C

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