Making and Keeping Friends

Making and Keeping Friends

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Factors in Friendship

Studies of interpersonal attraction and friendship have documented the power of circumstances such as propinquity. In their 1950 book Social Pressures in Informal Groups, Leon Festinger, Stanley Schachter, and Kurt Back reported the friendship preferences of married students living in university housing. Festinger and his colleagues found that the students and their families were most likely to form friendships with others who lived nearby and with whom they had regular contact. Propinquity was a more powerful determinant of friendship than common background or academic major. Propinquity appears to act as an initial filter in social relationships Nearness and contact determine the people an individual meets, after which other factors may affect interpersonal attraction. Mere exposure does not appear to sustain relationships over time. Once people have interacted, their likelihood of having future interactions depends on factors such as physical attractiveness and similarity to one...


Friendship begins as a relationship of social exchange. Exchange relationships involve giving and returning favors and other resources, with a short-term emphasis on maintaining fairness or equity. For example, early in a relationship, if one person does a favor for a friend, the friend returns it in kind. Over time, close friendships involve shifting away from an exchange basis to a communal basis. In a communal relationship, partners see their friendship as a common investment and contribute to it for their mutual benefit. For example, if one person gives a gift to a good friend, he or she does not expect repayment in kind. The gift represents an investment in their long-term friendship, rather than a short-term exchange. Friendship also depends on intimate communication. Friends engage in self-disclosure and reveal personal information to each other. In the early stages of friendship, this is immediately reciprocated One person's revelation or confidence is exchanged for the...

Preface to Second Edition

This book is the result of a long-standing friendship between two research groups - one in Sydney, Australia, and the other in Geneva, Switzerland. It was stimulated by a previous book on proteomics which we produced together in 1997. Many of the authors who contributed to the original book have also written for this new book, but with an additional 10 years of experience. What is interesting about the authors of this book is that many of them have developed new proteomic technology and techniques, commercialized this technology via different routes, established proteomics and or bioinformatics companies, and applied proteomics to large numbers of problems of scientific, clinical and industrial importance. We believe this body of experience is unusual and unique and makes this book of relevance to proteomic researchers in all areas of academic and industrial biology and medicine.

Sources for Further Study

Festinger, Leon, Stanley Schachter, and Kurt Back. Social Pressures in Informal Groups. Stanford, Calif. Stanford University Press, 1963. This classic work documents the authors' research on housing and friendship preferences and ties work on friendship to theories of group structure and function. Hendrick, Clyde, and Susan Hendrick. Close Relationships A Sourcebook Thousand Oaks, Calif. Sage, 2000. A wide-ranging sourcebook of current theory, research, and practical application of the psychology of friendship. Cole, 1992. The Hendricks provide a thorough review of the processes of affiliation and interpersonal attraction. They include a discussion of issues in relationships, such as separation and divorce, blended families, changing sex roles, and dual-career couples. Yager, Jan. Friendshifts The Power of Friendship and How It Shapes Our Lives. 2d ed. Stamford, Conn. Hannacroix Creek Books, 1999. A practical book on the structures and sustenance of friendships.

Mixing romance and intellectual collaboration

At the advice of Professor Sumner, Clark returned to New York in 1939 to enroll in a Ph.D. program in Psychology at Columbia. Mamie continued with her studies at Howard. The friendship, by now, had turned to romance and they became engaged. Kenneth wrote to Mamie's father with a formal introduction. The reply he received was not warm. Our objective with regard to Mamie is to have her complete her education and to be equipped to earn her own living if that should ever become necessary, Dr. Phipps declared. He warned Kenneth that he would not countenance anything that would interrupt that course.

Psychiatric Rehabilitation Day Programming

Much of the development of psychiatric rehabilitation has taken place in community-based settings where groups of consumers gather during the day for friendship, support, recreation, rehabilitation, and treatment. These settings are potentially most effective when their environments are designed to promote the recovery of persons with severe mental illnesses. This chapter will explore the historical roots of these programs. Starting from two distinctly different program types, each emphasizing different philosophies, characteristics, and program elements, we will trace their eventual synthesis into today's psychiatric rehabilitation day program. We will examine how these programs may be

The religious crisis of the West

Teachings of the Church during his adolescence. He tried to discuss them with his father, but he was continually frustrated. Although Paul Jung never reproached his son for refusing to take Communion and avoiding church services as often as possible, he also never answered his son's questions directly. Jung had a series of arguments with his father in 1892-94 his father seemed to be struggling with his faith and gradually sinking into a depression. Jung attributed his father's eventual collapse and death to the emotional suffering he experienced while trying to reconcile the contradiction between the official theology of the Church and his actual experience of God. Unfortunately, Jung's rigid theoretical separation of religious experience from formal doctrine complicated his later attempts to form friendships with theologians and members of the clergy.

Development of Social Interest

Later, the three main pillars of social interest are friends, family, and career. Having friends can help overcome inferiority, because it allows one to be important in the eyes of someone else. Friends share their problems, so one does not feel like the only person who has self-doubt and frustration. Starting one's own family reduces inferiority feeling in much the same way. One feels loved by spouse and children, and one is very important to them. Having an occupation allows one to develop a sense of mastery and accomplishment and provides some service to others or to society at large. Therefore, those people who have difficulty establishing and maintaining friendships, succeeding as a spouse or parent, or finding a fulfilling career will have less opportunity to develop a healthy social interest and will have a greater susceptibility to lingering feelings of inferiority.

Changes in social networks

In the course of their relationship, couples create substantial social contexts that involve sharing domestic, recreational or occupational activities. When skin disease changes companionship in any one of these areas, the maintenance or nature of the relationship may be threatened (Lyons & Sullivan, 1998). Changes in a couple's social network may occur through reduced interactions with others and an increase in companionate activities at home (Morgan et al., 1984). More than often, withdrawal is a response to the damaging effects of social stigma. Porter et al. (1990) reported that vitiligo patients experienced embarrassment and anxiety when meeting strangers and that many had been victims of rude remarks in the face of public ignorance. In the short term, avoidance may serve a protective function, but it may also lead to loss of friendships and activities that would typically increase a couple's social network. In an early survey, Jobling (1976) asked 186 members of the British...

Choose GetKeep Framework

As in supported employment, it is also important to help students with disabilities gain access to natural supports during the keep phase of supported education. Examples of these include use of existing resources on campus (tutors, study skills seminars), and establishing relationships with classmates for emotional support, friendship, note sharing, and study groups. Some SEd programs also help facilitate ongoing peer support groups so that students with disabilities who have educational goals, as well as those who are currently enrolled in classes, can provide each other with support, encouragement, and relevant information.

Defining Self Help and Peer Support

To receive constructive feedback (Jacobs, Masson, & Harvill, 2005). Self-help groups have unique benefits as well, including the promotion of empowerment and a chance to establish ongoing friendships, which may be discouraged in professionally run groups. Many people who have a mental illness participate in self-help groups in part because they feel they can be more open and honest with their peers than with professionals. Exposure to role models who are managing their illnesses and leading satisfying lives is also an important benefit (Davidson et al., 1999 Deegan, 1993).

Psychiatry And The Media Today

Regarded as being as crazy as their patients . People do not really know or understand what their job is. This may be due to the belief that this specialty does not have a rational basis. There is a general tendency to think that they do not cure , that they act as the counselor, the good friend often the treatment and its application are confused with a vision of the patients lying on a couch and revealing their most intimate secrets. Thus, not knowing psychiatrists' methods results in a series of myths in relation to their practices, which are related only to electroconvulsive therapy or psychiatric hospitals.

Maslows hierarchy of needs

Love, affection, and belonging needs Once the physiological and safety needs are reasonably satisfied, the next set of needs to emerge focuses on relationships with others. Maslow felt that people have a basic need for individual friendships and love, as well as for a sense of belonging to a group. Once a person feels basically secure and has basic physiological needs met, he or she will seek affection and belong-ingness. While he thought that sexuality was greatly influenced by the need for love and affection, Maslow pointed out that the need for love is not the same as the need for sex, which could be understood on a physiological basis.

Psychosexual development

Explanation Latency The resolution of the phallic stage leads to the latency period, which is not a psychosexual stage of development, but a period in which the sexual drive lies dormant. Freud saw latency as a period of unparalleled repression of sexual desires and impulses. During the latency period, children pour this repressed libidinal energy into asexual pursuits such as school, athletics, and same-sex friendships. But soon puberty strikes, and the genitals once again become a central focus of libidinal energy. The latency stage extends approximately from ages six to 12. Critics claim that Freud's assumption of a latency period of sexual development,

Appendix Biography Of Isaac Newton

While the arguments between Leibniz and Newton were raging over who discovered calculus first, Newton's good friend Charles Montague was elected president of the Royal Society. On March 19, 1696, Montague got the king to make Newton Warden of the Mint. People used to chip pieces off of coins for the valuable metal, so coins got smaller and smaller as they circulated. During Newton's tenure, new coins were made and recoinage was complete in 1699. He was promoted to Master of the Mint, a position that provided a good salary that enabled him to help his poorer relatives. He believed that they who gave away nothing till they died, never gave. He also gave freely to many worthy causes such as the fund for building a new library at Trinity College, which was designed by Newton's friend Sir Christopher Wren. The library is still in use today. Newton also contributed money toward the purchase of a permanent building for the Royal Society.

Inadequate understanding of religion

Lastly, Jung seems never to have understood the historical nature and doctrinal structure of orthodox Christianity because of his early separation of religious experience from corporate worship and academic theology. He formed several friendships with British as well as German clergy, hoping to persuade Roman Catholics as well as Protestants of the merits of his psychology. Perhaps the most important of these friendships was Jung's relationship with Father Victor White, an English Dominican. The relationship was hindered by Jung's inability to take theology seriously as a form of knowledge in its own right, even though its methods are not the same as those of the natural sciences. In addition, Jung's insistence that the process of individuation

Controversy with Carol Gilligan

In the years since Kohlberg's death, he has become better known in some quarters as the educator who provoked Carol Gilligan's challenge to his theories and method rather than as a major figure in his own right. One of Kohlberg's colleagues has estimated that Gilligan has had a greater impact on moral education than Kohlberg himself. Gilligan did not feel free to discuss publicly her personal friendship as well as her professional relationship with Kohlberg until 1997, when she delivered the Kohlberg Memorial Lecture at the annual meeting of the Association for Moral Education. While Gilligan had never been one of Kohlberg's students or postdoctoral fellows, having completed her own doctorate in 1963, she agreed to teach a section of an undergraduate course that he offered in 1970 on moral and political choice. She then coauthored a paper with Kohlberg that appeared in Daedalus in 1971 as The Adolescent as a Philosopher, an article that is still regarded as a classic statement of...

Influences on Affiliation

Beyond easing fear and satisfying the need for information or social comparison, mere affiliation with others is not usually a satisfactory form of interaction. Most people form specific attractions for other individuals, rather than being satisfied with belonging to a group. These attractions usually develop into friendship, love, and other forms of intimacy. Interpersonal attraction, the experience of preferring to interact with specific others, is influenced by several factors. An important situational or circumstantial factor in attraction is propinquity. Propinquity refers to the proximity or nearness of other persons. Research by Festinger and his colleagues has confirmed that people are more likely to form friendships with those who live nearby, especially if they have frequent accidental contact with them. Another important factor in attraction and friendship is physical attractiveness. According to the physical attractiveness stereotype, most people believe that physically...

The impact of skin conditions on selfesteem

It is important for teachers and parents to help dispel some of the fears that other children or parents may have about the child's skin condition. Common mis-perceptions are that the condition may be contagious or may be very painful if the skin looks red or inflamed. Before the child starts at school it is important for the parent to meet with the child's teacher to explain the condition and to provide information about it, particularly if it is very rare or if the condition may be affected by factors within the school, such as temperature or sitting on a carpet. If appropriate, the teacher can spend some time with the whole class helping them to understand the condition and promoting friendships.

Disorders in Child and Adolescent Population

Children end up as refugees with or without their families. They are either willing or unwilling participants in a war and often have experienced death and destruction. At times they have been the cause of death, as soldiers, or have been tortured physically or sexually. Once in a foreign land, children express some coping behaviour that is culturally determined and some other that they gradually develop. Children are quicker to absorb the new culture, make friends and learn the new language. Often their ability to assimilate faster into a new community leads to a change of role in their home, and adults tend to depend on them more for help in resolving social issues. Although there are studies showing very high prevalence rates for mental disorders, especially PTSD, there are others 40 that have criticized the overdiagnosis of PTSD by Western assessors, including the international organizations. Studies related to mental health problems among children and adolescents are summarized...

Triumphs and disappointments

After about 1900, however, Binet's family life took a turn for the worse. His wife became depressed and ill, and the couple rarely went out socially. His daughters had been isolated, too, since they were schooled at home. As the girls grew into young women, Binet worried about their ability to form healthy friendships. He also fretted about Alice's health and Madeleine's marriage, of which he did not approve. The gloomy atmosphere at home may have been reflected in Binet's hobby. In the last years of his life, he wrote plays with dramatist Andr de Lorde, nicknamed The Prince of Terror. The plays all dealt with ghoulish themes, such as a released mental patient who committed murder and a scientist who tried to bring his dead daughter back to life.

Definition and Formation of Groups

There are several ways in which people come to join the groups to which they belong. People are born into some groups. Several types of groupings are influenced in large part by birth family, socioeconomic status, class, race, and religion. Other groups are formed largely by happenstance for example, a line of the same people waiting for the 8 05 ferry every day. Some groups, however, are determined more clearly by intentional, goal-oriented factors. For example, a group of people at work who share a concern for well-being, health, and fitness may decide to form an exercise and nutrition group. Students interested in putting on a concert might decide to form a committee to organize bake sales, car washes, and fund drives in order to raise the money needed to achieve this goal. Finally, group memberships are sometimes created or changed as an effort toward self-definition or self-validation. For example, one can try to change one's religion, political orientation, professional...

The Story of David

Because he likes some of the staff members, and because he has made some close friendships with other program members. One of these friends is Jean, who has been attending the program for several years herself. Jean tells David that while she finds the structure and support offered by the day program helpful in coping with her illness, she sometimes finds the groups to be boring and irrelevant. She wishes she had more control over what kinds of group activities are offered. They joke about starting their own program called CONTROL (Consumer Operated Network to Recover Our Lives).

Early life

Nevertheless, Yerkes's formal education got off to a slow start. When he first began attending the local country school at the age of eight, he was unable to read well and too shy to make friends easily. Yerkes soon adapted, however, and even found that he enjoyed the lessons. He particularly liked arithmetic and algebra, because I found them stimulating, interesting, game-like . . . and physiology and hygiene, because their objectives, information, and principles impressed me as particularly important.

Carol Gilligan

Following her work with Erikson, Gilligan became Kohlberg's research assistant in 1970. The course of her friendship as well as her professional relationship with Kohlberg has already been described. Gilligan published her best-known book, In a Different Voice Psychological Theory and Women's Development in 1982. In its pages she took issue with Kohlberg's definition of the stages of moral development on the grounds that its emphasis on justice and rationality was implicitly androcentric.

Carol Tindall

The first step is to choose a topic of concern, personally relevant to the participant, which has the potential to offer insight. This may be their work situation, family, friendships, themselves, relationships, leisure activities, possible opportunities, whatever is appropriate. Second, the participant must choose a range of elements (more than ten can become unwieldy . Elements are anything that give rise to construing they can be people, courses, pubs, leisure activities, careers, aspects of work etc. To expose the most illuminating picture and to allow some comparison, elements need to vary on dimensions relevant to the participant and the topic. If explaining friendship, for example, it is likely that you would want to include established friends, ex-friends, potential friends and acquaintances. Traditionally, in Kellyan research, elements are roles -someone I admire, someone I dislike, someone who has influenced me etc. - or, if the focus of the research is yourself, each of...

Fritz Heider

Fritz Heider (1896-1988) was a social psychologist best known for his book The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, first published in 1958. Heider grew up in Vienna and received his Ph.D. from the University of Graz in Austria before coming to the Psychological Institute at the University of Berlin. There he met Kurt Lewin and formed a friendship with him that lasted until Lewin's death.

Hunger Regulation

Advantages of group support for hunger regulation include the realization that one is not alone. An often-heard expression in group therapy is I always thought I was the only person who ever felt this way. Other advantages include group support for risk taking, feedback from different perspectives, and a group laboratory for experimenting with new social behaviors. Witnessing others struggling to resolve life issues can provide powerful motivation to change. Self-help and therapy groups also offer friendship and acceptance. Creative arts therapies are other forms of psychotherapy used by persons seeking to understand and control their hunger regulation mechanisms. Creative therapy may involve art, music, dance, poetry, dreams, and other creative processes. These are experiential activities, and the process is sometimes nonverbal.

Life Space Regions

The concept of life space is usually divided into two parts person and environment. These two parts can be differentiated further into regions. A region is any major part of the life space that can be distinguished from other parts and is separated by more or less permeable boundaries. For example, regions differentiated within the person might consist ofneeds, goals, hopes, and aspirations of the individual, whereas the differentiation of the environment might consist of profession, family, friendships, social norms, and taboos.


Much early research on affiliation and friendship developed from an interest in social groups. After World War II, social scientists were interested in identifying the attitudes and processes that unify people and motivate their allegiances. Social comparison theory helps to explain a broad range of behavior, including friendship choices, group membership, and proselytizing. Festinger suggested that group membership is helpful when one's beliefs have been challenged or disproved. Like-minded fellow members will be equally motivated to rationalize the challenge. In their 1956 book When Prophecy Fails, Festinger, Henry Riecken, and Schachter document the experience of two groups of contemporary persons who had attested a belief that the world would end in a disastrous flood. One group was able to gather and meet to await the end, while the other individuals, mostly college students, Research on propinquity combined with other studies of interpersonal attraction in the 1960's and 1970's....

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