Researchers at Combio and Arpida have reported a series of isoxazole-3-hydroxamic acids as PDF inhibitors [109]. Molecular modelling studies predict that the aryl substituent of isoxazole (37) binds into the S1' pocket and that the oxygen atom of the isoxazole is involved in a H-bonding interaction with Ile-44 in E. coli PDF, similar to the P1' carbonyl of actinonin. None of the inhibitors reported has sub-micromolar inhibitory activity against E. coli or S. aureus PDF. Not surprisingly, these moderately active inhibitors also lack antibacterial activity.

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