In diabetic rats, TRPV1 is enhanced on myelinated fibres and is hyperphos-phorylated by PKC [127]. In accordance with these findings, anti-TRPV1 antiserum was shown to ameliorate pain in a murine model of diabetic neuropathy [128]. In humans, the density of TRPV1-positive nerve fibres is increased in women with chronic breast pain [129] and with vulvodynia [19]. Disruption of TRPV1 gene causes attenuation of bone cancer pain in mice [130]. Pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 by agonists relieved pain in AIDS patients [131].

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