Positive Curvature

Zero Curvature nor

Fig. 6.5. The forces present in a lipid bilayer. At the top Is shown the distribution of lateral pressures and tensions across a lipid monolayer. The repulsive lateral pressure Fc In the chain region Is due to thermally activated bond rotational motion. The Interfacial tension y, tending to minimize the interfacial area, arises from the hydrophobic effect (unfavourable hydrocarbon-water contacts). Finally, the lateral pressure Fh In the headgroup region arises from sterlc, hydrational and electrostatic effects; It is normally repulsive, but may contain attractive contributions from, for example, hydrogen bonding Interactions. After Seddon (1990). Below Is shown the tendency for spontaneous curvature of a lipid monolayer arising from an Imbalance In the distribution of lateral forces across the monolayer. The arrows show the direction of observation used In the definition ofnegatlve and positive curvature di(C16:0)PC for the first few carbon atoms of the chain (Seelig and Seelig 1975). The order parameter profile for dimyristoylphosphatidic acid [di(C14:0)PA] is also very like that for di(C16:0)PC (Laroche et al. 1990; Pott et al. 1995).

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