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101 Toxic Food Ingredients

101 Toxic Food Ingredients

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From ref. 44a.

From ref. 44a.

3.3.1.2. Chemical Hazards

Naturally occurring chemicals. Allergens.

Mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin). Scombrotoxin (histamine). Ciguatoxin.

Mushroom toxins (Table 7). Shellfish toxins

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Phytohemagglutinin.n Added chemicals

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Agricultural chemicals: pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics, and growth hormones. Prohibited substances: direct and indirect.

Toxic elements and compounds: lead, zinc, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, and cianide. Food additives

Vitamins and minerals.

Contaminants: lubricants, cleaners, sanitizers, coatings, paints, refrigerants, water or steam treatment chemicals, and pest control chemicals. From packaging materials Plasticizers Vinyl chloride. Printing/coding inks. Adhesives. Lead. Tin.

3.3.1.3. Physical Hazards

Illness and injury can result from hard foreign objects in food. These physical hazards can result from contamination and/or poor practices at many points in the food chain from harvest to consumer, including those within the food establishment (Tables 8 and 9).

3.3.2. How to Conduct a Hazard Analysis

3.3.2.1. Review Incoming Material

For each incoming material (ingredient or packaging material), write B, C, or P directly (Table 10) to indicate the potential of a biological, chemical, or physical hazard. Be specific when describing the hazards. For example, instead of writing "bacteria in incoming ingredient," write "C. botulinum in incoming mushroom."

To facilitate the identification of potential hazards, answer the following questions for each incoming material:

• Could pathogenic microorganisms, toxins, chemicals, or physical objects possibly be present on/in this material?

• Are any returned or reworked products used as ingredients? If yes, is there a hazard linked to that practice?

• Are preservatives or additives used in the formulation to kill microorganisms or inhibit their growth or extend shelf life?

• Are any ingredients hazardous if used in excessive amounts? (For example, nitrites could be a chemical hazard if used excessively.)

• Could any ingredients, if used in amounts lower than recommended or if omitted altogether, result in a hazard because of microbial vegetative or sporulated cell outgrowth?

• Do the amount and type of acid ingredients and the resulting pH of the final product affect growth or survival of microorganisms?

• Do the moisture content and the water activity (Aw) of the final product affect microbial growth? Do they affect the survival of pathogens (parasites, bacteria, fungi)?

• Should adequate refrigeration be maintained for products during transit or in holding?

3.3.2.2. Evaluate Processing Operations for Hazards

Identify all realistic potential hazards related to each processing operation, the product flow, and the employee traffic pattern.

• Assign a number to each processing step on the process flow diagram (Table 11) horizontally from receiving to shipping.

• Examine each step on the process flow diagram and determine whether a hazard (biological, chemical, or physical) exists for that operation

• Write B for biological, C for chemical, and P for physical beside each operation where such a hazard has been identified (Table 11).

• Review the plant schematic and employee traffic pattern on Form 4 in the same manner.

To help in determining whether a hazard exists, the following questions should be answered for each processing step:

• Could contaminants reach the product during this processing operation? (Consider personnel hygiene, contaminated equipment or material, cross-contamination from raw materials, leaking valves or plates, dead ends [niches], splashing, and so on.)

Table 6

Hazard Identification: Biological Hazards

Product Name(s): Canned mushrooms

List all biological hazards related to ingredients, incoming material, processing, product flow, and so on

Identified biological hazards Controlled at

Ingredients/materials

Mushrooms

Could contain C. botulinum or other pathogenic organisms, yeasts, or molds Dry ingredients

Could contain bacterial spores; could contain rodent excrement Water

Could contain coliform or spore-forming bacteria or other microorganisms Empty cans/ends

Could arrive with serious internal double seam or body plate defects, which could result in leakage causing postprocess contamination; could arrive with serious external double seam, body plate, lacquer/coating defects or damage which could result in leakage causing postprocess contamination Process Steps

5. Refrigerated mushroom storing

Improper storage temperature and humidity could result in increase of bacterial load

6. Can/end storing

Physical damage could result in serious double seam defects, which could result in postprocess contamination with pathogenic bacteria Could be contaminated with rodent excrement

7. Dry ingredient storing

Could be contaminated with rodent excrement 9. Can depalletizing/inspection

Incorrect cans, physical damage or serious visible defects could result in leakage and postprocess contamination with pathogenic bacteria

11. Mushroom blanching

Improper cleaning of the blancher could result in the growth of thermophilic bacteria in mushrooms

Inadequate blanching could result in insufficient removal of gases, which could cause stress on double seams and perforations and lead to postprocess contamination with pathogenic bacteria

Excessive blanching could result in textural changes to the mushrooms, which could result in inadequate thermal processing

12. Can conveying

Physical damage could result in the formation of defective double seams, which could lead to postprocess contamination with pathogenic bacteria

20. Weighing

Overfilled cans not properly rejected for overweight could be underprocessed

21. Water filling

Inadequate temperature could result in low initial temperature and subsequent underprocessing

HACCP in Food Safety Table 6 (continued)

Identified biological hazards Controlled at

22. Headspacing

Insufficient headspace could result in excessive internal pressure during processing causing distorted seams and leakage contamination

23. End feeding/closing/inspecting

Ends with damaged curls or other serious defects could result in leakage and contamination with pathogenic bacteria

Improperly formed double seams could result in leakage and contamination with pathogenic bacteria

25. Thermal processing

Nonvalidated process or vent schedule could result in underprocessing and survival of pathogenic bacteria

Improper flow patterns in processing area could result in heat-processed cans being contaminated with unclean water from unprocessed baskets of cans Improper flow design in processing area could result in retort baskets missing the retort, allowing growth of pathogenic bacteria

Excessive time lapse between closing and retorting could result in excessive buildup of bacteria, some of which could survive the thermal process Lack of adherence to time, temperature, and other critical factors of the scheduled process or vent schedule could result in inadequate heat treatment, allowing the survival of pathogenic bacteria

26. Cooling

Insufficient chlorinated cooling water could result in contamination of product during contraction of cans

Excess chlorine in cooling water could result in corrosion and subsequent leakage and contamination of product

Insufficient contact time between the chlorine and water could result in contamination of product during contraction of the cans Insufficient or excessive cooling could result in thermophilic spoilage or postprocess contamination because of leakage of corroded cans

27. Conveying/drying

Contaminated water from wet and unclean postprocess equipment could contaminate product

28. Labeling/storing

Physical damage to cans could result in leakage and contamination of product High temperatures could result in growth of thermophilic bacteria

29. Shipping

Physical damage to cans could result in leakage and contamination of product date:

approved by:

Table 7

Hazard Identification: Chemical Hazards Product Name(s): Canned mushrooms

List all chemical hazards related to ingredients, incoming material, processing, product flow, and so on.

Identified chemical hazards Controlled at

Ingredients/Materials

Mushrooms

Could contain pesticide residues

Could contain heat-stable staphylococcal enterotoxin from improper handling Water

Could be contaminated with dissolved heavy metals or toxic substances Empty cans/ends

Cans/ends could be contaminated with greases/oils or cleaning chemicals Process Steps"

6. Can/end storing

Cans/ends could become contaminated with nonfood chemicals as a result of improper storage

7. Dry ingredient storing

Food ingredients could become contaminated with nonfood chemicals if improperly stored 11. Mushroom blanching

Cleaning-chemical residues could contaminate the mushrooms

If live steam is used, boiler water additives could carry over and contaminate the product

14, 16, Mushroom conveying, mushroom slicing/dicing, filling, end 19, 23. feeding/closing

Cleaning-chemical residues or lubrificants could contaminate the mushrooms date:____approved by:_

aNumbers are from flow diagram in Table 11.

• Could any microorganisms of concern multiply during this processing operation to the point where they constitute a hazard? (consider temperature, time).

3.3.2.3. Observe Actual Operating Practices

• Observe the operation long enough to be confident that it comprises the usual process or practices.

• Observe the employees (e.g., could raw or contaminated product cross-contaminate workers' hands, gloves, or equipment used for finished or post-process product?).

• Observe hygienic practices and note the hazards.

• Analyze whether there is a kill step (process that destroys all microorganisms) during the process (if so, attention should be focused on potential crosscontamination after this processing operation).

Table 8

Examples of Physical Hazards

Material

Injury potential

Sources

Glass Cuts, bleeding; may require surgery to find or remove

Wood Cuts, infection, choking; may require surgery to remove

Stones Choking, broken teeth

Metal Cuts, infection; may require surgery to remove

Insulation Choking; long-term if asbestos

Bone Choking

Plastic Choking, cuts, infection; may require surgery to remove

Personal effects Choking, cuts, broken teeth; may require surgery to remove

Bottles, jars, light fixtures, utensils, gauge covers, and so on. Field sources, pallets, boxes, building materials Fields, buildings Machinery, fields, wire, employees Building materials Improper processing Packaging, pallets, equipment

Employees

3.3.2.4. Take Measurements

• Measure product temperatures, considering heat processing and cooling or chilling operations: take measurements at the coldest point of the product when heat processing is evaluated and at the warmest point of the product when cooling or chilling is evaluated (frequently at the center of the largest piece).

• Measure time/temperature for cooking, pasteurizing, canning cooling (rates), storing, thawing, reconstituting, and so on.

• Measure the dimension of the containers used to hold foods being cooled and the depth of the food mass.

• Measure pressure, headspace, venting procedure, adequacy of container closure, initial temperatures, and any other factors critical to the successful delivery of a scheduled process.

• Measure the pH of the product during processing and also of the finished product, measuring pH at room temperature whenever possible.

• Measure Aw of the product, running duplicate samples whenever possible (because of variations) and remembering to make corrections for ambient temperatures, as necessary.

3.3.2.5. Analyze the Measurements

• Plot time/temperature measurements using a computer or on graph paper.

• Interpret controlled data vs optimal growth temperatures of microorganisms and temperature ranges at which they can multiply.

• Estimate and evaluate probable cooling rates; interpret cooling rates and compare the measured temperatures with temperature ranges within which bacteria of concern multiply rapidly vs temperature at which growth begins, slows, and ceases (44b,44c); determine whether covers are used on containers to cool down foods (which may delay cooling but may also prevent contamination); if containers are stacked against each other in a manner affecting cooling or heating time, evaluate the impact.

• Compare Aw and pH values with ranges at which pathogens multiply or are eliminated.

• Evaluate the shelf stability of the product.

Table 9

Hazard Identification: Physical Hazards Product Name(s): Canned mushrooms

List all physical hazards related to ingredients, incoming material, processing, product flow, and so on.

Identified physical hazards Controlled at

Ingredients/Materials

Mushrooms

Could be contaminated with harmful extraneous materials, e.g., glass, metal, plastic, wood Empty cans

Could contain metal fragments, and so on Dry ingredients

Could be contaminated with harmful extraneous materials Ingredients/Materials"

1. Mushroom receiving

Inadequate protection against harmful extraneous material could result in contamination of mushrooms

2. Can/end receiving

Inadequate protection against harmful extraneous material could result in contamination of cans and ends

3. Dry ingredient receiving

Inadequate protection against harmful extraneous material could result in contamination of ingredients

5. Mushroom storing

Inadequate protection against harmful extraneous material could result in contamination of raw mushrooms

6. Can/end storing

Inadequate protection against harmful extraneous material could result in contamination

7. Dry ingredient storing

Inadequate protection against harmful extraneous material could result in contamination of food ingredients 9. Can inspection/depalletizing

Empty cans coming from storage could contain harmful extraneous material, which could result in contamination of food product 12. Can conveying

Inappropriate design and protection against harmful extraneous material could result in contamination of food product 14. Mushroom convening/inspection

Inappropriate design and protection against harmful extraneous material could result in contamination of the mushrooms 16. Mushrooms slicing/dicing

Product could become contaminated with metal fragments from plant machinery

HACCP in Food Safety Table 9 (continued)

Identified physical hazards Controlled at

18. Foreign object removal

Inadequate monitoring of foreign object removal could allow foreign objects to contaminate the product

19. Filling

Filled cans of mushrooms could become contaminated with metal fragments from the filling equipment date:____approved by:_

aNumbers are from the flow diagram in Table 11. Table 10

Product Ingredients and Incoming Material Product Name(s): Canned mushrooms

Raw material Packaging material Dry ingredients

Mushrooms

Cans

Salt

(domestic, white)

B, C, P

B, C

B, C, P

Ends

Ascorbic acid

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