C, chemical; P, physical; GHP, good hygienic practices; GMP, good manufacturing practices. aNumbers are from flow diagram in Table 11.

surements (e.g., pH, Aw, time, temperature) are preferred, as they can be done rapidly and can often be related to the microbiological control of the process. The equipment used for monitoring CCPs will vary depending on the attribute being monitored. Examples of monitoring equipment include:

• Thermometers.

• Water activity meters.

• Chemical analytical equipment.

3.6.5. Monitoring Frequency

Monitoring can be continuous or noncontinuous. When possible, continuous monitoring is preferred; it is possible for many types of physical or chemical methods. Examples of continuous monitoring include:

• Measuring the time and temperature of a pasteurization or retorting process.

• Checking each package of frozen, mechanically chopped spinach with a metal detector.

• Monitoring the container closures on glass jars by passing them under a dud detector.

The following questions will help to determine the correct frequency:

• How much does the process normally vary?

• How close is the operating limit to the critical limit?

• How much product is the processor prepared to risk if there is deviation from the critical limit?

Table 16

CCP Determination

Process step/incoming

Category and identified

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