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approved by:

date:

approved by:

B, biological; C, chemical; P, physical.

3.3.3.1.1. For Bacteria, Control Measures Include:

• Temperature/time control (proper control of refrigeration and storage time, for example, minimizes the proliferation of microorganisms).

• Heating and cooking (thermal processing) for an adequate time and at an adequate temperature to eliminate microorganisms or reduce them to acceptable levels.

• Cooling and freezing.

• Fermentation and/or pH control (for example, lactic acid-producing bacteria in yoghurt inhibit the growth of other microorganisms that do not tolerate the acidic conditions and competition).

• Addition of salt or other preservatives, which at acceptable levels may inhibit growth of microorganisms.

• Drying, which may use enough heat to kill microorganisms or may remove enough water from the food to prevent certain microorganisms from growing even when drying is conducted at lower temperatures.

• Packaging conditions (vacuum packaging, for example, can be used to inhibit microorganisms that require air to grow).

• Source control, i.e., control of the presence and level of microorganisms by obtaining ingredients from suppliers who can demonstrate adequate controls over the ingredients (e.g., suppliers that follow an HACCP program).

• Cleaning and sanitizing, which can eliminate or reduce the levels of microbiological contamination.

• Personal and hygienic practices, which can reduce the levels of microbiological contamination.

3.3.3.1.2. For Viruses, Control Measures Include:

• Thermal processing—heating or cooking methods such as steaming, frying, or baking— which may destroy many but not all viruses. (The type of virus determines the appropriate controls.)

• Personal hygienic practices, including the exclusion of workers affected by certain viral diseases, e.g., hepatitis.

3.3.3.1.3. For Parasites (Worms and Protozoa), Control Measures Include:

• Dietary control (infection from Trichinella spiralis in pork, for example, has decreased as a result of better control of the pigs' diet and environment)—a method not always practical, however, for all species of animals used for food. (The diet and environment of wild fish, for example, cannot be controlled.)

• Visual examination, which can be used in some foods to detect parasites (e.g., a procedure called candling can be used for certain fish).

• Good personal hygiene practices by food handlers, proper disposal of human feces, and proper sewage treatment.

3.3.3.2. Controlling Chemical Hazards

• Source control, i.e., specifications for raw materials and ingredients and vendor certification that harmful chemicals or levels are not present.

• Processing control, i.e., formulation control and the proper use and control of food additives and their levels.

• Proper segregation of nonfood chemicals during storage and handling.

• Control of incidental contamination from chemicals (e.g., greases, lubricants, water and steam treatment chemicals, paints).

• Labeling control, i.e., ascertaining that the finished product is accurately labeled with ingredients and known allergens.

3.3.3.3. Controlling Physical Hazards

• Source control (i.e., specifications for raw materials and ingredients and vendor certification that unacceptable physical hazards or levels are not present.

• Processing control (e.g., use of magnets, metal detectors, sifter screens, destoners, clari-fiers, air tumblers).

• Environmental control (i.e., ensuring that good manufacturing practices are followed and that no physical contamination occurs to the food through the building, facilities, work surfaces, or equipment).

Table 12

2D Health Risk Assessment Model

Table 12

2D Health Risk Assessment Model

High

Sa

Mi

Ma

Cr

Medium

Sa

Mi

Ma

Ma

Low

Sa

Mi

Mi

Mi

Negligible

Sa

Sa

Sa

Sa

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