Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xix

Contributors xxi

PART 1 1

1 AN ENVIRONMENTAL PRIMER 3

Anthony L. Andrady

1.1 Introduction 8

1.2 The Big Picture—Earth and its Environment 11

1.3 The Small Picture — Business Enterprises 18

1.4 Valuation of Environmental Resources 25

1.5 Stewardship of the Environment 27

1.6 Environmental Issues Related to the Plastics Industry:

Global Concerns 32

1.7 Environmental Issues Related to the Polymer Industry:

Local and Regional Concerns 51

1.8 Present Treatment 56 Appendix A: Global Warming 62 Appendix B: Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone 69

2 COMMON PLASTICS MATERIALS 77

Anthony L. Andrady

2.1 Common Thermoplastics 79

2.2 Polyethylenes 83

2.3 Polypropylene 93

2.4 Poly(vinyl Chloride) 96

2.5 Polystyrene 101

2.6 Polyethylene Terephthalate) 103

2.7 From Resins to Thermoplastic Products 105

2.8 Polyurethane and other Polymeric Foams 113

3 POLYMERSAND ENERGY 123

Ian Boustead

3.1 Introduction 123

3.2 Contributions to Energy 124

3.3 Feedstock 125

3.4 Transport 125

3.5 Representations of Energy 126

3.6 Gross and Net Calorific Values 127

3.7 Typical Gross Energies for Polymer Production 128

3.8 Conversion Processes 132

3.9 Energy and Polymer Recycling 133

PART 2 137

4 PLASTICS IN PACKAGING 139

Susan E. M. Selke

4.1 Introduction 139

4.2 Packaging Functions 142

4.3 Advantages of Plastics in Packaging Applications 143

4.4 Types of Plastics Packaging 145

4.5 Common Packaging Plastics 148

4.6 Biodegradable Plastics 158

4.7 Source Reduction 160

4.8 Reuse 162

4.9 Recycling 163

4.10 Energy and Environmental Assessments 166

4.11 Legislation and Regulation 177

5 PLASTICS IN AGRICULTURE 185

Ikram Hussain and Halim Hamid

5.1 Introduction 185

5.2 Greenhouse Films 187

5.3 Weather Parameters that Affect Plastics Lifetime 190

5.4 Stabilization of Plastics 192

5.5 Mulch Films 197

5.6 Plastics in Silage 199

5.7 Disposal of Waste Plastic Films 199

5.8 Drip Irrigation Systems 201 Appendix: Structure of Selected UV-Stabilizers 207

6 COATING 211

Loren W. Hill

6.1 Environment Cost and Benefits Coatings 211

6.2 Coatings and the Energy Crisis 212

6.3 Coatings and the Material Crisis 212

6.4 Historical Development of the Coatings Industry 213

6.5 Binders and Solvents Used in Modern Coatings 215

6.6 Effect of Government Regulations on the Coatings

Industry 220

6.7 Coatings Industry Responses to Regulation 228

7 WASTES FROM TEXTILE PROCESSING 243

Brent Smith

7.1 Introduction 243

7.2 Yarn Formation 266

7.3 Yarn Preparation 267

7.4 Fabric Formation 269

7.5 Textile Wet Processing Chemicals 271

7.6 Substrate Preparation (Pretreatment) 276

7.7 Coloration: Dyeing and Printing 283

7.8 Finishing 299

7.9 Product Fabrication 303 7.10 Conclusion 304

PART 3 311

8 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON POLYMERIC

MATERIALS 313

Norma D. Searle

8.1 Introduction 313

8.2 Weather Factors and Their Effects on Polymeric

Materials 314

8.3 Environmental Stability and Degradation Mechanisms of Polymeric Materials 320

8.4 Stabilization of Polymeric Materials Against

Environmental Effects 330

8.5 Environmental Weathering Tests 339

8.6 Laboratory-Accelerated Weathering Tests 342

8.7 Laboratory-Accelerated versus Environmental

Weathering Tests 351

9 BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS 359

Stephen P. McCarthy

9.1 Introduction 359

9.2 Justification 360

9.3 Requirements for Design and Manufacture 361

9.4 Biodegradable Polymers from Renewable Resources 361

9.5 Biodegradable Polymers from Petroleum-Derived

Products 367

9.6 Future Developments 368

10 PLASTICS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT 379

Murray R. Gregory and Anthony L. Andrady

10.1 Introduction 379

10.2 Plastic Litter and other Marine Debris 381

10.3 Biological and Environmental Impacts 385

10.4 Degradation of Plastics at Sea 389

10.5 Photodegradable Plastics as a Mitigation Strategy 394

10.6 Conclusions 397

11 FLAMMABILITY OF POLYMERS 403

Archibald Tewarson

11.1 Introduction 403

11.2 Heat Exposure of a Polymer 406

11.3 Release of Polymer Vapors 407

11.4 Polymer Melting 408

11.5 Polymer Vaporization/Decomposition 417

11.6 Ignition of Polymer Vapors 417

11.7 Combustion of Polymer Vapors 435

11.8 Fire Propagation 461 Nomenclature 486

12 BIODEGRADABLE WATER-SOLUBLE POLYMERS 491

Graham Swift

12.1 Introduction 491

12.2 Definitions 493

12.3 Opportunities for Biodegradable Water-Soluble Polymers 495

12.4 Test Methods for Biodegradable Water-Soluble Polymers 497

12.5 Synthesis of Biodegradable Water-Soluble Polymers 499

12.6 Modified Natural Polymers 509

12.7 Conclusions 513

PART 4 521

13 POLYMERS, POLYMER RECYCLING, AND SUSTAINABILITY 523

Johannes Brandrup

13.1 Introduction: What is Sustainability 523

13.2 Polymers and Sustainability 524

13.3 Polymer Recycling and Sustainability 530

13.4 Conclusions 560

14 PLASTICS RECYCLING 563

Michael M. Fisher

14.1 Introduction 563

14.2 Basic Plastics Recycling Definitions and Nomenclature 564

14.3 Polymer Recovery, Recycling, Resource Conservation, and Integrated Resource Management as Global

Concepts 566

14.4 Early History of Plastics Recycling (Pre-1990) 567

14.5 Polymer Recycling Statistics 569

14.6 Marking of Plastic Packages and Products 574

14.7 Collection of Plastics for Recycling 577

14.8 Overview of Plastics Recycling Technology 583

14.9 Looking Ahead 617

15 THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF WASTES AND PLASTICS 629

Ashwani K. Gupta and David G. Lilley

15.1 Introduction 629

15.2 Magnitude of the General Incineration Problem 630

15.3 Sources, Disposal, and Recycling of Plastic and other

Wastes 634

15.4 Incineration of Cellulose and Surrogate Solid Wastes 641

15.5 Thermal Destruction of Plastic and Nonplastic Solid

Waste 655

15.6 Thermal Destruction of Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Polyethylene, and Polyvinyl Chloride 673

15.7 Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities for Energy

Recovery from Wastes 693

15.8 Closure 694

16 RECYCLING OF CARPET AND TEXTILE FIBERS 697

Youjiang Wang, Yi Zhang, Malcolm B. Polk, Satish Kumar, and John D. Muzzy

16.1 Introduction 697

16.2 Textile Waste and Recycling 698

16.3 Carpet Waste and Composition 699

16.4 Fiber Recycling Technologies 701

16.5 Summary 721

17 POLYMERS IN AUTOMOBILE APPLICATIONS 727

Wendy Lange

17.1 Introduction 727

17.2 General Environmental Impacts 730

17.3 Using Polymers in Vehicles 731

17.4 Summary 744

Index

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