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for shipment. For bottles, production and delivery of the resin accounts for 78% of the total energy used [29].

Selected ecoprofile information for expandable polystyrene (EPS) and for thermoformed EPS are presented in Table 4.8. In the thermoforming operations studied, trim scrap ranged from 25 to 45%, all of which was recovered and sent

Packaging 8.32%

Packaging 8.32%

Figure 4.11. Energy distribution in production of HDPE extrusion blow-molded bottles [29].
Figure 4.12. Distribution of energy use in HDPE bottle blow molding [29].

for reprocessing. A waste production level of 2% was assumed. Resin production accounted for 80.74% of the total energy requirements (Fig. 4.15) [29].

Recently, a life-cycle assessment for various alternative package systems for yogurt was published by the Center for Sustainable Systems at the University of Michigan. The study concluded that the use of larger size containers and switching from injection molded polypropylene cups to thermoformed PP cups would result in significant decreases in the environmental burden associated with the yogurt packaging [30]. An earlier study evaluated the life-cycle design of several alternative packages for milk. Life-cycle energy comparisons for some of these package systems are shown in Table 4.9 [31].

Several computer programs for life-cycle assessment calculations are now available, primarily in Europe. Some governments require their use, although

Table 4.5 Selected Consumption and Emissions for LDPE Resin, LLDPE Resin, and LDPE Film [29]

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