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nonplastic sample contains trace amounts of chlorine that may be left after the bleaching process in papermaking. The other metals found in the fly ash analysis are titanium, iron, and copper. In general metals are present more in plastic than nonplastic. Figure 15.21 shows the variation of some of the toxic and rare metal elements for all the test runs.

Metals in Bottom Ash The neutron activation method (NAM) has been used to analyze metals present in bottom ash. The accuracy is down to 100th of a percent. However, the limitation is with the number of metals that can be detected. Only short irradiation metal analysis was carried out, and metals with longer radioactive decay have to stay longer (months) in the reactor to complete the test. The presence of the rare metals vanadium, barium, indium, magnesium, and manganese was detected. The higher vanadium content is found in plastic/nonplastic mixtures than in 100% nonplastic. Barium, which is a noncarcinogenic toxic metal, was found in small percentages in samples 4 (50% nonplastic/50% plastic A) and 6 (50% nonplastic/50% plastic C).

A small fraction of indium is detected from the nonplastic/plastic samples 2, 3, 4, and 5. Strontium was detected with sample 1 (100% nonplastic) and some in sample 2 (85% nonplastic/15% plastic) and sample 6 (50% nonplastic/50% plastic C). Figure 15.22 shows some of the rare and toxic metals present in bottom ash and their variation with test runs.

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