__ a Mechanically g 2> stabilized fabric

Resin (DMDHEU) Catalyst (MgCI2) Softener mix -Oil -Wax

- Polyethylene surfactant

Finished fabric I- Conforming

L- Nonconforming (high shrink, excessive shade change, wrong width)

Chemical finish

Dust and lint from filters in curing ovens Dumped mixes |-End-of-run L- Unused portions Washdown -Machines -Mix area Facility Implements Air emissions ch2o

VOCs Energy Trim and scraps

- Energy

- Packing material h Bags LTies

1st-quality finished fabric

Inspect/Pack/ Ship

- Off-quality fabric—Rework if possible L Cutouts -Holes -Ends -Seams lQC test pieces

Pattern marker Thread

Auxiliary parts -Collar -Cuff -Tags

-Buttons and bows -Zipper -Innerliner Sewing machine lubricating oils

- Plastic bags

- Cases and boxes


I- 1 st-quality L 2nd-quality

Cut and sew

To retailer

Pack and ship

-Cut scraps -Trim cutout defects Packing materials I-Plastic L Metal

Waste parts (off-specification) -Cones or spools from thread Shirts (unmerchantable)

Waste packing material

Figure 7.2. (continued)

- Auxiliary chemical I- Catalyst

- Stabilizer—color control


- Delusterant

(Titanium dioxide) L Thermal/photostablllzer (phenolic materials) End-group control (copper compounds)

- Energy

- Water

Ethylene glycol dimethyl terephthalate

Polymer PET chips

Polymerization reaction

- Ethylene glycol vapors

- Dimethyl terephthalate vapors

- Methanol vapors L Particulates Water

- Cooling water

- Reaction water

- Cleanup water Solid waste


- Still bottoms from

Recovery of ethylene glycol Off-Quality PET Spilled PET

- Cooling water

Spin finish chemicals (proprietary) Cones (for winding) Energy Air

- Energy

- Lubricants

Filament polyester yarn

Melt extrusion


-Ethylene glycol vapors

-Dimethyl terephthalate vapors

-Methanol vapors

-Spin finish chemical vapors



I-Coollng water ^Cleanup water '-Spilled chemicals Solid waste -Imperfect yarn -Spilled PET chips -Packaging from PET chips LPackaglng from Finish chemicals Heat losses

- Scrap yarn

- Cones

L Yarn cases and packaging materials

- Energy

- Other warp size components |-Antlstat -Humectant - Lubricant L Antibacterial

Warp beam

Sized beam

Slashing (size)

- Discarded size mixes -Equipment cleanup - Implement cleanup -Mix kitchen waste L Dumped mixes

- Mix kitchen

- Slasher L Pipes

- Size bags

- Other chemical containers (drums)

- VOCs from warp drying

|-Slze components L Finish applied earlier Energy

Figure 7.3. Manufacturing waste analysis of women's polyester dress (continued overleaf ).

ro 01 o

chemicals (e.g., drums) and fiber finish

Figure 7.3. (continued)

chemicals (e.g., drums) and fiber finish

Figure 7.3. (continued)

a Si

Heatset fabric

Dyed fabric I-Conforming _^Nonconforming

Dry and heatset

-VOCs I—Fiber finish Residual scour Chemicals - Seam sewing waste -Cones, spools From thread

- Specialty dyeing assistants

- Dispersant Antimigrant

Finished fabric I-Conforming _L Nonconforming

- Energy

- Packing material |-Bags


Thermosol dyeing

"Ist-quality Finished fabric to cut and sew

Inspect/pack/ ship

Wastewater from washing -Dye dispensant -Urea

-Spent specialties '-Heat

Spent chemicals and cleanup Chemical packaging VOCs

LSublimed dyes

Hot air

Hot water

2nd-quality fabric

Dumped mixes at end of run

- Off-quality fabric — Rework if possible Cutouts -Holes -Ends

- Seams

- QC test pieces

Pattern marker Thread Auxiliary parts -Collar -Cuff -Tags

-Buttons and bows



Dresses Hst-quality _^"2nd-quality

Cut and sew pPlastic bags -Cases and boxes

To retailer

Pack and ship

Cut scraps Trim cutout defects Packing materials I-Plastic L Metal

Waste parts (off-specification) Cones or spools from thread Dresses (unmerchantable)

Waste packing material

Figure 7.3. (continued)

7.1.3. Solid Waste

Solid waste from textile operations comprises mainly drums and other packing materials, ash and sludge, processing wastes (yarn/fiber/fabric), paper cones and tubes, and paper bags. A comprehensive study of solid waste generation in textile operations showed wastes as listed in Table 7.1 [6]. The 290 facilities surveyed produced an average of over 51 tons of solid waste per month each. Of these wastes, 64% went to public landfills, about 23% was recycled, and the rest went to other disposal methods such as incineration or private landfills. Most of the recycled materials are cardboard (2943 tons/month), fiber waste (1881 tons/month), card waste (1646 tons/month), and selvage trimmings (1089 tons/month). Two of the major sources, ash from boilers and wastewater treatment solids, are directly process related and are difficult to prevent, and they amount to about one fourth of the total, or over 6000 tons/month. Conserving of energy can reduce boiler ash. Reduction of chemical content of wastewater and efficient wastewater treatment system operation can result in a decrease of treatment sludge disposal needs.

In another study, a vertically integrated company comprising five plants produced annual waste packaging materials as shown in Table 7.2, which amounted to about 500 tons total [7]. Waste fabric, yarn, and fiber from processing accounts for another major fraction of solid waste. In one multifacility company (spinning, weaving, dyeing, and finishing), annual processing waste amounted to over 1000 tons of fiber, fabric, and yarn. Selvage trimming and seam cut out

Table 7.1 Solid Wastes Produced by Textile Manufacturers [6]

Aluminum cans

Bale wrapping

Boiler ash

Carding waste


Carpet backing

Carpet remnants

Carpet trim

Carpet waste

Compacted trash

Computer paper

Fabric waste

Fiber waste



Hard thread

Hard plastic

Latex foam solids

Metal drums

Office paper

Paper bags

Paperboard drums

Plastic bale wrap

Plastic drums

Plastic film

Plastic containers

Plastic drum liners


Scrap metal

Scrap wood

Selvage trimmings

Slasher waste

Soft thread

Surface finishing lint Sweeps

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