Other Conditions

T2-weighted MR imaging has been utilized in a number of other conditions including, for example, head injury (Yanagawa et al., 2000; Wardlaw and Statham, 2000; Hadley et al., 1988; Gentry et al., 1988), cerebral infections (Bailes et al., 1982; Thurnher et al., 1997), migraine (Ferbert et al., 1991; Soges et al., 1988), psychiatric disorders

(Buckley et al., 1995) and alcohol-related diseases (Sullivan and Hefferbaum, 2001; Park et al., 2001). The majority relied on only qualitative assessment; however, where quantitation was performed, increased sensitivity was demonstrated. In a study of central pontine T2 relaxation times in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome and asymptomatic alcoholic patients, prolonged T2 values were detected in more patients with Korsakoff's syndrome than was apparent from visual assessment. Furthermore, in asymptomatic patients, T2 values increased with advancing patient age; a trend not observed in control subjects (Sullivan and Pfeffesbaum, 2001). Using a semiquantitative visual rating scale, Bartzokis et al. (1999) demonstrated a similar effect in cocaine-dependent patients. The relationship of age and risk of WMH among cocaine-dependent patients was similar to that in control subjects, but was seen approximately 20 years earlier, suggesting that cocaine-dependent patients had a significantly increased age-related risk of white matter damage (Bartzokis et al. (1999)). A similar semiquantitative approach was used to evaluate patients with head injury. Positive correlation between clinical measures, including duration of unconsciousness and Glasgow Outcome Scale, and number of lesions identified on MRI was seen with T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging but not with T2-weighted fast spin echo imaging, implying that, following head trauma, the prevalence of small haemorrhages is more clinically significant than axonal loss and gliosis (Yanagawa et al., 2000). Quantitative analysis of T2-weighted images using spatial autocorrelation statistics showed enhanced sensitivity over visual assessment in patients with HIV infection and cerebral involvement by detecting abnormalities in normal appearing white matter (Corrigall et al., 1995). Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the pixel contrast between parieto-occipital white matter and the head of caudate grey matter provided an objective measure of T2 signal hyper-intensity in the white matter of similar patients, and was able to discriminate between patients with low and high CD4 lymphocyte counts (Wilkinson et al., 1996). This latter technique has also been utilized in monitoring the response to antiretroviral treatment (Wilkinson et al., 1997).

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