Surgical spaces

The orbit may be divided into three surgical "spaces". The potential subperiosteal space lies between the bone and the periorbita. The intra and extraconal spaces are divided by the extraocular muscles and intermuscular septa.

Lesser wing of sphenoid

Zygomatic process

Orbital plate \ of greater wing of sphenoid

Superior orbital fissure

Zygomatic bone

Inferior orbital fissure

Lesser wing of sphenoid

Superior orbital fissure

Zygomatic bone

Orbital plate of maxilla

Maxillary process

Infraorbital foramen

Figure 1.4 Bony right orbit.

Body of sphenoid

Maxillary process

Supraorbital^ notch

Optic foramen

Nasal bone

Ethmoid

Lacrimal bone

Palatine bone

Orbital plate of maxilla

Superior orbital fissue

Levator palpebrae Superior rectus superioris

\ ' Trochlear nerve

Lacrimal N Frontal N Sup. ophthalmic vein

Sup. divison oculomotor N.

Nasolacrimal N

Infraorbital foramen

Levator palpebrae Superior rectus superioris

\ ' Trochlear nerve

Superior oblique

Figure 1.5 Annulus of Zinn and related structures.

Superior oblique

Medial rectus Optic nerve

Ophthalmic artery

Inferior rectus

Inf. division oculomotor N. Abducens N.

Inf. ophthalmic vein Lateral rectus

(a)

(b)

(c)

Eyelids

Blinking

Re-opening

open

of lids

Figure 1.3 The lacrimal pump.

Figure 1.4 Bony right orbit.

Figure 1.5 Annulus of Zinn and related structures.

The subperiosteal space provides an easily dissectable plane for surgical access and follows the contours of the orbital walls. The most important structure in the extraconal space is the lacrimal gland. Within the muscle cone, i.e. in the intraconal space, lies orbital fat, the optic nerve plus blood vessels and nerves.

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