Orchid Growing Training Course

Orchid Care Tips

The Internet's Original Orchid Growing Training Course. Discover the #1 most important step you should take to keep your orchid plants healthy, brilliant and insect-free. How do you know if your orchid plant it truly dead or just in a dormant state preparing to bloom again for you? Youll find out in our free course! A simple, easy method for knowing exactly when its time for repotting your orchids and giving them the best orchid propagation chances possible. Heres Just a Small Sampling of What Youll Discover in this Amazing Resource: Discover the common mistake everyone makes about epiphytic orchids and how to avoid it! Discover the 3 capacities of the labellum and why they are critical to your orchids survival. Learn the amazing prediction Darwin made about Xanthopan morgani praedicta. Here are 3 simple ways to insect-proof your greenhouse. When your orchid has exhausted its compost these 3 signs appear. Think all orchids offer nectar to insects? Find out why this common misconception is false and the Real trait all orchids share. These are the 7 crucial, life-giving minerals your orchid needs to survive. Learn why your pods might just contain over 186,300 seeds for propagation! Ever find your orchid blushing violently and then wilting? Put an end to it once you read page 4. Having problems feeding your epiphyte? This very special technique will solve your problems once and for all. Got Pests? Diseases? Spotted Flowers? This might be the silent killer youre facing. Learn the light trick and find out if your orchids Really have no more buds. How to tell the difference between monopodial and sympodial groups (and why the difference is important to your future as an orchid grower.) Continue reading...

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Author: Mary Ann Berdak
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I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

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Complete Orchid Fertilizers Homemade Recipes

John Perez shares with you 50 years of major experiences, never told methods and Instantly Valuable recipes that brought him a Complete Triumph! You'll discover how to unlock your orchids' full potential. Youll know exactly how to feed your orchids to quickly, easily and inexpensively get (force) astonishing results. When you discover John's exclusive Complete Orchid Fertilizer that Safely increases orchid's growth rate up to 250%. You know how to skyrocket your orchids up to new mind-blowing levels of beauty and value.

Complete Orchid Fertilizers Homemade Recipes Summary

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Protocorm formation in orchids

The seeds of orchids (like those of some other saprophytic or semi-parasitic plants) contain a small embryo of only about 0.1 mm diameter, without any associated endosperm storage tissue. Upon germination, the embryo enlarges to form a small, corm-like structure, called a protocorm, which possesses a quiescent shoot and root meristem at opposite poles. In nature, a protocorm becomes green and accumulates carbohydrate reserves through photosynthesis. Only when it has grown and has sufficient stored organic matter does it give rise to a shoot and a root. Normal seedling growth then continues utilising the stored protocorm food reserves. Bodies which, in their structure and growth into plantlets, appear to be identical with seedling protocorms (except that on synthetic media they may not be green), are formed during in vitro culture of different types of orchid organs and tissues. These somatic protocorms can appear to be dissimilar to seedling protocorms, and many workers on orchid...

The propagation of orchids

Morel (1960) noticed that when protocorms of Cymbidium were divided new protocorms were formed from the pieces, whereas if they were not divided, original and regenerated protocorms developed into new plantlets. Morel (1960, 1964) suggested that meristem or shoot tip explants could be used to establish cultures for the clonal propagation of orchids, providing thereby the basis of the method which is now used for many orchid genera. Rates of propagation are improved through the use of slightly more complex media than used by Morel, and by including growth regulators. However, many commercial micropropagation laboratories do not favour the use of protocorms for micropropagation because of the lack of clonal fidelity. Some orchids not only form protocorms on apical meristems, but also directly on explants such as leaves (Churchill et al., 1971 1973 Tanaka et al., 1975), or flower stalks (Flamee and Boesman, 1977 Arditti et al., 1977), or they may be formed from callus or callus via...

Pollination and Senescence

Van Doom (1997) in an exhaustive survey of the literature found that pollination rapidly reduces floral attraction in numerous orchids, but among the other plant families studied, only about 60 genera were found to show pollination-induced shortening of floral attraction. In some instances, pollination was even found to increase the longevity of the flower. Where examined, the pollination-mediated decrease in floral longevity appeared to be due to the action of ethylene as inhibitors of ethylene synthesis or perception invariably blocked the effect of pollination.

Transitional Forms from Embryo to Bud

Asterad Type

The analysis of literature and the original data on the development of sexual and somatic embryos in natural conditions and in vitro has led us to conclude, that there are structures which differ from typical sexual and somatic embryos and from bud by their morphology. In connection with this we introduce now a term transitional form (in the terms of evolution) which means a structure exhibiting traits of an embryo (for example, globular, heart- and torpedo-shaped stages of development) and of a bud (formation of adventitious roots during regeneration) 5, 12, 37 . The embryos of Nelumbonaceae (Nelumbo nucifera), Ceratophyllaceae (Ceratophyllum demersum), Poaceae, Orchidaceae and Orobanchaceae illustrate the possible ways of such transition. A similar phenomenon can be observed among somatic embryos. In Orchidaceae the shoot and root apices are not exhibited morphologically in the mature embryo. Later during protocorm formation the bud and the adventive root arise and the secondary...

Root Growth Theory In Medicine

Wurzelatlas Kutschera

Journal of Experimental Botany 48, 885-893. Benzing, D.H., Ott, D.W. and Friedman, W.E. (1982) Roots of Sobralia macrantha (Orchidaceae) - structure and Goh, C.J. and Kluge, M. (1989) Gas exchange and water relations in epiphytic orchids. In Vascular Plants as Epiphytes Evolution and Ecophysiology, Ecological Studies Analysis and Synthesis, Vol. 76 (ed. U. L ttge), pp. 139-166. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Roots and the Architecture of Root Systems

Generic Photo Shoot

Aerial or shoot-borne roots originate from a range of above-ground structures. In grasses such as maize, these roots act to prop or brace the stem but when they grow into the soil they may branch and also function in the absorption of water and nutrients (McCully, 1999). Many trees also produce prop roots - including the spectacular banyan tree (Ficus macrophylla) - which gradually invades new ground and 'takes over' surrounding trees. In plants such as ivy (Hedera helix), the aerial roots cling to objects like walls and provide support to the climbing stem. There are many adaptations in the aerial roots of epiphytes which allow the plants to live on, but not parasitize, other plants. In some genera (e.g. Ansiella, Cyrtopodium and Grammatophyllum) fine aerial roots grow upright to form a basket which collects humus which is then penetrated by other roots which utilize the nutrients. In epiphytic orchids, root tip cells contain chloroplasts as, in many cases, do the...

Ethyleneinduced Senescence

Studies over the past two decades have demonstrated that senescence control probably depends on the interaction of different growth regulators. Treatment of carnations with cytokinins (Eisinger, 1977) or gibberellins (Saks and van Staden, 1992) has been shown to extend flower life, and treatment with high concentrations of auxins to reduce it (Sacalis and Nichols, 1980), although this latter effect may simply be due to auxin-stimulated ethylene production. A similar mechanism seems to explain the stimulation of orchid flower senescence by methyl jasmonate (Porat et al., 1993). Exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA) has been shown to accelerate flower senescence in standard roses (Halevy and Mayak, 1972), miniature roses (Muller et al., 1999) and carnations (Mayak and Dilley, 1976).

Early Use In Plant Tissue Culture Media

In the first instance, the advantage of adding various micronutrients to culture media was mainly evaluated by the capability of individual elements to improve the growth of undifferentiated callus or isolated root cultures. Knudson (1922) incorporated Fe and Mn in his very successful media for the non-symbiotic germination of orchid seeds, and, following a recommendation by Berthelot (1934), Gautheret (1939) and Nobecourt (1937) included in their media (in addition to iron) copper, cobalt, nickel, titanium and beryllium. Zinc was found to be necessary for the normal development of tomato root systems (Eltinge and Reed, 1940), and without Cu, roots ceased to grow (Glasstone, 1947). Hannay and Street (1954) showed that Mo and Mn were also essential for root growth.

The Pollination Signal

Burg and Dijkman (1967) proposed that auxin was transferred to orchid stigmas from the pollen and then diffused to the column and labellum where it promoted the onset of autocatalytic ethylene production. However, studies with labeled IAA have shown that its movement is very slow in orchids (Strauss and Arditti, 1982). O'Neill andNadeau (1997) have also noted that the levels of free auxin in orchid pollen are appreciably lower than those required to induce rates of ethylene production comparable to those found in pollinated flowers. Ethylene signaling is discussed in Chapter 8. We interpreted the evolution of radioactively labeled ethylene from petals of carnation after labeled ACC was applied to the stigma as evidence for movement of ACC from the stigma to the petals (Reid et al., 1984). In contrast, Woltering et al. (1995) suggested that in Cymbidium orchids, it was radiolabeled ethylene produced in the rostellum (stigma), not the radiolabeled ACC that moved to the petals. These...


Certain flowers show age-related changes in color, including the bright blue flowers of chicory that fade over the course of the day that they are open (Proctor and Creasey, 1969). Many flowers, particularly those in the Leguminosae and Verbenaceae (Van Doorn, 1997) change color in response to pollination. In the Arizona lupin (Lupinus albifrons), for example, pollination is followed by a rapid and dramatic change in color, in which the bright yellow spot on the banner petal of this blue flower changes in color to a reddish-purple (Stead and Reid, 1990). In Cymbidium orchids, pollination or even emasculation results in a rapid blushing of the lip.

Other Issues

Experiments directly testing the effects of pollen deposition and pollen removal on flower lifetime have shown that both can shorten it by promoting early senescence of corollas (Table 24-1, and references above) however, not all species show this response (Table 24-1 also reviewed in Van Doorn, 1997). In fact, pollination-induced plasticity in flower longevity is not homogeneously distributed among flowering plants, rather it appears to be associated with other floral characters. In particular, pollination-induced senescence may be concentrated in plant families with relatively long-lived flowers, but absent from groups with very short-lived flowers (Stead, 1992 Van Doorn, 1997). Orchids fall into the former category, while many tropical families (e.g., Rubiaceae) may fall into the latter (Stratton, 1989 Stead, 1992 Van Doorn, 1997). However, more data are needed for a rigorous test of this hypothesis, because some exceptions clearly exist e.g., long-lived flowers that do not respond...


Asparagales (14 families) is the largest order of the monocots and contains the largest family, Orchidaceae (the orchids, 750 genera, 20,000 species one of the two largest families of the angiosperms, the other being Asteraceae). The onion and daffodil family (Alliaceae) and the asparagus and hyacinth family (Asparagaceae) are the enlarged optional concepts of these families proposed by APG (2003). Up to 30 smaller families have sometimes been recognized in Asparagales, but this large number of mostly small families makes learning the families of the order difficult and trivializes the concept of family. Therefore, I favour the optional fewer larger families recommended by APG (2003). For example, APG II proposed to lump the following in Asparagaceae Agavaceae (already including Anemarrh-neaceae, Anthericaceae, Behniaceae and Hostaceae), Aphyllanthaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Laxmanniaceae, Ruscaceae (already including Convallariaceae, Dracaenaceae, Eriospermaceae and Nolinaceae) and...

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