Pandemic Survival Guide

Pandemic Survival

This eBook shows you what it takes to survive the next pandemic. There is no doubt that in the future, the world will be hit with a huge pandemic, either from natural causes or from a terrorist attack. As you look through history, you will be hard-pressed to find any pandemic in history that has killed less than 1 million people. You do not want you or your family to be among those millions. And with the help of the information in this eBook, you have a way to survive the global pandemic that will come. Wishing it won't happen doesn't do anything Preparing for it gives you the tools to survive AND thrive. This book contains the two-pronged approach of John Hartman's years of research in figuring out how pandemics work and living through a dangerous flu outbreak. This gives you the methods to both avoid getting a virus in the first place, and how to strengthen your immune system should you come down with a virus. You don't have to lay down and die. You can fight the next pandemic. Read more...

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Author: John Hartman
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Ebola Virus Disease

Ebola virus is the second known filovirus and was first described in 1976. Between August and November 1976, outbreaks of severe and frequently fatal viral haemor-rhagic fever occurred in the equatorial provinces of Sudan and Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of Congo, causing widespread international concern. Among the 70 cases in Nzara, Sudan, 33 were fatal. Of the 230 members of the staff in the Maridi hospital, 76 were infected and 41 died. Of the 237 infected persons in Zaire, 211 died. In all, 602 persons were known to have been infected, with an overall fatality rate of 88 in Zaire and 49 in the Sudan. During laboratory investigations carried out to identify the virus, a member of the laboratory staff of the Microbiological Research Establishment, Porton Down in England, contracted the disease but recovered. Ebola virus reappeared in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1977 one girl died and her sister had a probable related infection, from which she recovered. A small...

Tropical Infectious Diseases And Migration

Today, pathogens can travel at high speed and are able to reach all parts of the world within 24 hours. Highly contagious agents, such as influenza viruses, may cause epidemics in distant foci within a short time however, most infections specific to the tropics need certain environmental conditions for autochthonous spread. Single cases may be exported worldwide, but further dissemination is limited to areas where suitable vectors, intermediate hosts, reservoirs, or ecological conditions are present (Table 2.7). Nevertheless, some infections originating in tropical countries have shown the potential for global spread. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a formidable example of such a pathogen. Occasionally, even tropical 'high-risk' pathogens (e.g. Lassa virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus) may be exported to nonendemic areas (Table 2.8). However, the risk of further spread as a consequence of migration seems to be low at the moment because the known or presumed zoonotic reservoirs...

Introduction and Definitions

The global pandemic of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has attracted more publicity and political debate than any other infection. The scale of the pandemic is illustrated by the fact that, since the year 2000. More recently, the pandemic of HIV has evolved into essentially an infection transmitted heterosexual-ly in the developing and poor countries of the world, accounting now for over 75 of all cases of AIDS, and infection of groups defined as at 'high risk' in the industrialised communities. These include young adult homosexual and bisexual males in major cities and their partners, intravenous drug abusers and their sexual partners, and persons who change their sexual partners frequently.

Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers

Figure 6.11 Ebola virus (Zaire strain). This electron micrograph illustrates a single viral particle with many branches and a torus configuration. Negative stain, x 100000. (Courtesy of Dr David Ellis, reproduced from Principles and Practice of Clinical Virology, 1st edition, 1987) rus disease (1967), Lassa fever (1969) and Ebola fever (1976). Two other haemorrhagic fevers are discussed in this section, Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever the former because of extensive outbreaks in parts of Africa, including the Nile delta, and the latter because of its sporadic appearance in the Middle East and Pakistan. Those for Marburg virus and Ebola virus remain unknown. Lassa virus and other arenaviruses are normally transmitted to humans from infected rodents in Africa and South America. Rift Valley fever virus is transmitted by mosquitoes. Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses, common in Africa, Western Asia and parts of the Middle East and in Russia and Republics in...

The changing clinical significance of influenza A subtypes

Rather, the recent problems concerning PCR detection of influenza A have involved a change in the genetic nature of the viral subtypes circulating in a population. Following the Hong Kong pandemic of 1968, the influenza A types infecting humans have remained fairly stable with the common subtypes causing disease including H1N1, H1N2, H2N2 and H3N2. As a consequence, numerous PCR assays have been developed to ensure the detection of these subtypes. However, in the late 1990s avian strains of influenza were shown to infect humans (Hammel and Chiang, 2005), and several incidents of infection were reported, including H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2, in countries including Canada, the United States, the Netherlands as well as numerous Asian countries. Established PCR protocols were unable to detect these avian strains due to the genetic heterogeneity of their genomes, and, consequently, there was a growing need to review diagnostic capabilities for influenza A in many countries.

Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

HIV AIDS has become a worldwide epidemic (NIH, 2004). By the end of 2004, it was estimated that 39.4 million people will be living with HIV AIDS, 12.4 of which will be new cases (Avent.org). In 2003 alone, there were 3.1 million HIV AIDS-related deaths, including an estimated 490,000 deaths in children younger than 15 years of age (NIAID HIV AIDS statistics). Scientists are seeking to understand this disease and have just recently utilized SELDI TOF-MS for this purpose. One aspect of the HIV AIDS crisis is HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Although the virus enters the brain soon after HIV infection, neurological changes manifesting in HAD are not observed until many years later, usually during the destruction of the immune system and the development of AIDS (Zheng and Gendelman, 1997). Because HIV-1 infection of the nervous system is strongly associated with the infiltration of mononuclear phagocytic cells, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the virus is carried to the...

Marburg Virus Disease

Torus Medicine

Marburg virus is classified as a filovirus with two genotypes, Marburg and Ebola. Marburg virus has no known subtypes and is antigenically distinct from Ebola virus, which has four subtypes. The morphology of these two viruses is unique with a long, but variable, filamentous shape of particles (Figure 6.11). Particles may be branched, circular, U-shaped or resemble a torus (Figure 6.12)

Why Did They Travel and What Did They Do

Some occupational groups are inevitably at greater risk of exposure to vectors and illness. Health care personnel are particularly prone to the risk of needlesticks and similar accidents, as well as dealing with patients with pathogens that can be spread by airborne droplets or by direct contact with body fluids and faeces. The difficulties in preserving high levels of risk avoidance in a rural hospital setting are all too common and emphasised by the tragic deaths of health care workers assisting patients with Ebola infection in Uganda or Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever in South Africa, the Middle East (Suleiman et al., 1980) and Pakistan (Burney et al., 1980). Tuberculosis has always been a problem for health care staff and remains a hazard for those working overseas in areas of high endemicity (Harries et al., 1997).

Bruce Dicka Jane Fergusona David A Rossb

To achieve widespread implementation of these preventive interventions many things will need to be done through many sectors and by many actors. At the same time, it will be important to ensure that the interventions reach those people who are vulnerable and most at risk of becoming infected with HIV, both in terms of where the virus is and where the virus is going, as the pandemic develops and matures. The various chapters in this report focus on ways of meeting the global goals on young people and HIV. They also emphasize the sense of urgency that should accompany the drive to achieve these goals, as well as the need for a specific emphasis on prevention, and within that, a focus on the young people who remain at the centre of the HIV pandemic. The chapters also explore the need to have a better understanding of the evidence base for making decisions about the allocation of resources, and they particularly focus on developing countries. A number of factors need to be considered when...

Cholera

Successive cholera pandemics have spread around the globe as a result of international travel. The seventh pandemic started in 1961, and by the early 1990s it had reached South America for the first time in almost a century. It rapidly spread throughout the continent, with devastating consequences for example, in Peru it caused over 3000 deaths, and the estimated loss to the economy was about 500 million. The eighth pandemic started in Bangladesh in 1992, and was due to an entirely new strain (Vibrio cholerae 0139). This new strain has now spread to Africa, where it has caused outbreaks, especially among refugees, in which the case fatality has been as high as 50 .

Early years

Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on July 18, 1921, the youngest of five children. Both of his parents were Russian Jewish immigrants to the United States. Two of Beck's siblings had died before his birth, an older brother in childhood and an older sister in the influenza pandemic of 1919. As a result of these tragedies, Beck's mother was chronically depressed for several years and became overpro-tective of her youngest son. Beck came to think that he was a replacement for his sister, and that his mother was disappointed that he was not a girl. When Beck was seven years old, he broke an arm in a playground accident. The broken bone became infected, resulting in a generalized septicemia (blood poisoning) that kept him in the hospital long enough to miss promotion into second grade. Beck recalled later that he came to feel stupid I was held back in the first grade and I always felt it was because I was dumb. Many years later I asked my mother and she said it was...

Swine Influenza

Swine Influenza

SWINE INFLUENZA frightening you? CONCERNED about the health implications? Coughs and Sneezes Spread Diseases! Stop The Swine Flu from Spreading. Follow the advice to keep your family and friends safe from this virus and not become another victim. These simple cost free guidelines will help you to protect yourself from the swine flu.

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