Clinical Manifestations

The clinical and pathologic features of this infection are poorly defined. Although most patients appear to be asymptomatic (Adolph et al., 1962; Woodman, 1955; Holmes et al., 1969; Clarke et al., 1971), a wide range of clinical manifestations have been ascribed to M. perstans (Baker et al., 1967; Strohschneider, 1956; Stott, 1962; Sondergaard, 1972; Foster, 1956; Bourguignon, 1937; Gelfand and Wessels, 1964; Dukes et al., 1968; Baird et al., 1988; Basset et al., 1991; Rubin et al., 1987), including transient angioedema and pruritus of the arms, face, or other parts of the body (analogous to the Calabar swellings of loiasis) and recurrent urticaria. Less commonly, fever, headache,

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